A DIFFERENT ANALYSIS
ONLY YOG – (केवल योग) THE ENDLESS
ULTIMATE FOR ALL ‘UltimatES’
HOW IS THIS ANALYSIS DIFFERENT?
It is different because:-
• It is not based on any spiritualistic premises of some imaginary GOD and an imaginary SOUL (आत्मा) in pursuit of GOD ultimately becoming one with GOD.
Patanjali also does use the term ISHWAR (ईश्वर) for GOD but purely as a thoroughly defined technical term for knowledge encoded in innumerable VRITTIS (वृत्ति) that was always there, is always there and will always be there. Further, there is no mention even of the term ATMA (आत्मा) in his YOG SHASTRA. It is the study of human efforts made in search of knowledge, the reasons and the flaws with the efforts and the suggestions to overcome them with scientific reliability and precision. If we analyze these spiritualistic and Patanjali versions, we will find these are virtually the same in essence. But the problem is that the spiritualists have concocted a GOD and a SOUL which they propagate to be real visible or invisible personae and refuse to compromise without ever giving any reasons as there are none but for hollow explanations lacking in substance. Patanjali, on the other hand, not only explains this behavior of the spiritualists as symptoms and properties of some stage of existence of human beings and is equally sure of some other stage where such symptoms will just vanish. I am sure if the YOGIC methodology as postulated by Patanjali is adhered to in our actions the progeny will find this world a better place to live in and will not show any helplessness or a villain’s conceit in accepting a civilization that advocates hunting of human beings in all the fields by human beings only. The approach of this paper is, therefore, to convince the young Indian minds in particular and the humanity at large in general that people like Newton who are engaged even accidentally, in pursuits for the benefit of all, are the real perfect YOGIS as explained by Patanjali and the people who are engaged in the activities of hunting human beings should be proclaimed offenders and not the beacons of civilization howsoever sharp scientists or skilled rulers or administrators or business tycoons they might be. And similar should be the treatment of those who are masquerading as YOGA experts in the name of some higher civilization propagated as spiritualism bereft of happiness and welfare of all but still spreading an illusion by promising unverifiable uplift of an individual only through an unrealistic journey of soul which they will never be able to demonstrate.
• An effort has been made to understand Patanjali lexicon as he has defined or explained and interpret it in practical and scientific terms only and not with any impractical, imaginary, arbitrary, moralistic or commercial bias.
There are many reasons of misinterpreting Patanjali by the adherents of spiritualism. Main reasons are threefold. First a steadfast refusal to accept those meanings and explanations of the technical words in spite of clear definitions or explanations given by the author and thus treating these words as routine having arbitrary and free for all explanations. These are definite scientific terms and there is no spiritualism manifest in them. In this category are words like YOG (योग), ISHWAR (ईश्वर), DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN (ध्यान), and SAMADHI (समाधि) SANYAM (संयम), ABHYAS (अभ्यास), VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य), NIRODH (निरोध), AHINSA (अहिंसा), SATYA (सत्य), ASTEYA (अस्तेय), APRIGRAH (अपरिग्रह), BRAHMCHARYA (ब्रह्मचर्य), SHAUCH (शौच), TAP (तप), SANTOSH (संतोष), SWADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय), ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वर प्रणिधान) etc. Secondly, giving routine words such a spiritualistic coloring that these appear to be highly technical but in fact pedantic only as these fail the basic test of uniform universal understanding. In this category are the words like DEVTA (देवता), SUKH (सुख), DUKH (दुःख), JATI (जाति), SWARUP (स्वरुप), STHUL (स्थूल), SUKSHM (सूक्ष्म), GYAN (ज्ञान), TATTVA (तत्त्व), GUN (गुण), SIDDHI (सिद्धि) etc. Thirdly, coining such words for explanation of Patanjali Sutras that the author has not mentioned anywhere in his text. The words like SWARG (स्वर्ग), NARAK (नरक), PRALAYA (प्रलय), YOGI (योगी), ATMA (आत्मा), PARMATMA (परमात्मा), PUNARJANM (पुनर्जन्म), BHAKTI (भक्ति), ASTHA (आस्था), ARADHNA (आराधना), SADHNA (साधना), VIBHUTI (विभूति), ARTI (आरती), POOJA (पूजा), ASHT CHAKRAS (अष्टचक्र) and KUNDALINI (कुण्डलिनी) etc fall in this category. Overall these three types of words have rather become a sort of plaything in the hands of different varieties of spiritualists who are not only inimical to each other but contradictory also and still have the temerity to quote Patanjali only as the source of their arbitrary explanations mainly because there is similarity of words. A complete bibliography with dictionary is required to fully explain these words. It may tantamount to digression Therefore, while going through the methodology in successive paragraphs the precautions have been taken to explain the relevant contextual words and concepts only as Patanjali has defined or meant them with due references and not in any other prevailing spiritualistic sense. Many words emerge as having no equivalents in English language and thus have to be accepted as such conveying a concept given by Patanjali.
• One of the literal meanings of YOG that is ‘summation’ of a few things has been stressed while approaching it as a holistic concept and not as a linear concept.
Patanjali has studied YOG as a process having eight parts that he calls ASHTANG (अष्टांग) namely:
i. YAM (यम) comprising – AHINSA (अहिंसा), SATYA (सत्य), ASTEYA (अस्तेय), APRIGRAH (अपरिग्रह) and BRAHMCHARYA (ब्रह्मचर्य);
ii. NIYAM (नियम) comprising – SHAUCH (शौच), TAP (तप), SWADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय), SANTOSH (संतोष) and ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वर प्रणिधान);
iii. ASAN (आसन);
iv. PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम);
v. PRATYAHAR (प्रत्याहार);
vi. DHARNA (धारणा);
vii. DHYAN (ध्यान) and
viii. SAMADHI (समाधि).
YOG is a very exhaustive term with meanings running into pages. Patanjali knowing it chose to define it in the second sutra only of his YOG SHASTRA to ward off any misinterpretations. But still the spiritualistic methodologies generally recommend for some imaginary ‘ultimate union’ of SOUL and GOD, one of the literal meanings of YOG that has been presupposed arbitrarily as Patanjali has not even mentioned the word SOUL (ATMA) anywhere. For them it is an imaginary journey of imaginary SOUL from the human body to the imaginary GOD in a linear fashion by mastering the concepts of these eight parts beginning from YAM (यम), and ending at SAMADHI (समाधि) which they consider as the ultimate aim of human existence. The first hurdle came when it was rightly found that mastering the first YAM only out of five that is NON-VIOLENCE (AHINSA अहिंसा) itself may take a complete lifetime and still remain illusive. The question of mastering all the eight parts of YOG does not arise at all unless the very concept undergoes a kind of metamorphosis. Many varieties of YOG, religion and sects thus came into existence. Obviously such an imaginary journey could not have been performed without substituting the imaginary interpretations of these eight parts and thus completely neglecting the scientific definitions as given by Patanjali. The promised journey was still not completed but confusion was successfully achieved by creating an aura of awe around that practitioner of spiritualist YOGA and overall the concept of spiritualism. I have used the term YOGA mockingly everywhere to differentiate it with Patanjali or Vedic term YOG. (For details refer BLUFF OF RAJYOG, SAHAJYOG AND YOGA under THIRD BLUFF-YOGA - continued-2) All these eight parts of YOG were converted from precise scientific definitions of Patanjali into highly arbitrary concepts of individual convenience. YAMS were made free for all debatable ethical values and no two religions have ever agreed upon the content of any ethical concept except the name. NIYAMS were converted into meaningless abominable rituals completely devoid of reason and bordering on superstition many a times. The concepts of ASAN (आसन), PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम), DHARNA, DHYAN and SAMADHI were converted into various profit oriented commercial schools of YOGA having no relevance to Patanjali YOG, but each claiming the superiority of its methodology and sure way of reaching the ultimate union of SOUL and GOD about which they all knew that it could never become a verifiable concept. ‘Ultimate union’ in any form is thus the only literal meaning of YOG that a spiritualist is searching for in all explanations. In the present analysis YOG has been approached as a holistic concept where each part has a definite role that is essential for achieving not only flawless functioning but the set goal of any human search / research also. YAMS (यम) are essential for forming any objective (DHARNA धारणा) and NIYAMS (नियम) are imperative for sticking to that objective defined as DHYAN (ध्यान) by Patanjali. The concepts of ASAN (आसन), PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम) and PRATYAHAR (प्रत्याहार) are not only the ingredients of any long term planning but do function as instant remedial measures for any impediment. YOG is thus the summation – another literal meaning of YOG and not the ‘ultimate union’ as propagated by the spiritualistic explanations. It is the summation of all these eight parts being essential for any achievement that is the result of SANYAM (संयम) and it means SAMADHI (समाधि) added to DHARNA and DHYAN. The process of YOG does not stop here. The achievement mentioned is just an awareness of a principle responsible for a happening. Patanjali addresses this principle as PRAGYA ALOK (प्रज्ञा आलोक) about which he affirms that this principle now can be applied to any branch of knowledge and further research undertaken by again following the same process of YOG that calls for ‘summation’. In simplistic terms it means that first, for example the principle of gravity is found out and then it can be applied for further research to the various branches of knowledge like, astronomy, ocean logy, rocketry, space research, and hydrology and so on and so forth. Spiritualistic YOGA ensures that even such simple logic is not understood by the people and they always remain under the illusion of self given titles of being higher human beings in search of some higher knowledge. The tragedy is that through the centuries of conditioning we have come to believe in it.