THIRD BLUFF YOGA (Continued-3)
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
BLUFF OF AWAKENING OF KUDALINI
The concept of KUNDALINI (कुण्डलिनी) is given in YOG VASHISHTH (वशिष्ठ) and its awakening as a practice is the subject matter of TANTRA (तंत्र) of HATHYOG (हठयोग).The word KUNDALINI (कुण्डलिनी) does not exist in PATANJALI YOG SHASTRA (पतंजलि योग शास्त्र). According to spiritualists KUNDALINI (कुण्डलिनी) is an imaginary structure in the human body beginning from the end of the spinal cord, rising above and terminating in the head. This structure is of serpentine shape (KUNDALINI कुण्डलिनी) and joins eight points recognized as CHAKRAS (चक्र) again meaning circular shape. The names and the respective positions of these CHAKRAS (चक्र) in the body are as under;
a) MULADHAR CHAKRA (मूलाधार चक्र) situated an inch above the anus.
b) SWADHISHTHAN CHAKRA (स्वाधिष्ठान चक्र) situated at an inch and a half to two inches above MULADHAR CHAKRA (मूलाधार चक्र).
c) MANIPUR CHAKRA (मणिपूर चक्र) situated at the root of navel.
d) ANAHAT CHAKRA (अनाहत चक्र) situated near the heart
e) HRIDAYA CHAKRA (ह्रदय चक्र) situated at the midpoint of nipples.
f) VISHUDDHI CHAKRA (विशुद्धि चक्र) situated at the throat.
g) AGYA CHAKRA (आज्ञा चक्र) situated at the midpoint of the eyebrows.
h) SAHSRAR CHAKRA (सहस्रार चक्र) situated above the palate in the head.
The concept of awakening (JAGRAN जागरण) involves a sequence of illumination in the above mentioned parts beginning from MULADHAR CHAKRA (मूलाधार चक्र) and ending at SAHSRAR CHAKRA (सहस्रार चक्र).As per the philosophy of SPIRITUAISM, this illumination that will give unimaginable powers to the practitioner can be achieved by effortless techniques of various kinds of YOGAS mentioned earlier in this series. The height of bluff is that Patanjali has advocated this concept in his treatise.
The concept of eight CHAKRAS (चक्र) and nine gates (DWAR द्वार) as anatomical parts of human body does find mention in ATHARV VED (अथर्व वेद) as under:
ASHT CHAKRA NAV DWARA DEVANAM PURYODHYA
TASYAM HIRANYAYAH KOSHAH SWARGO JYOTISHOVRATAH
अष्टचक्रा नव द्वारा देवानां पूरयोध्या
तस्यां हिरण्ययः कोषः स्वर्गों ज्योतिषावृतः
But the insistence on finding out their spiritual meanings and considering scientific interpretations as inferior knowledge led to a confusion in the minds of spiritualists particularly in the wake of advances in modern science. A race for finding out the comparison between the modern anatomical / physiological facts and the CHAKRAS (चक्र) was set in. These were explained at different times differently by the spiritualists as equivalents of various GLANDS, PLEXUS / PLEXIS and SYSTEMS as studied by modern medicine. This is being done more to boast about the presence of this inferior knowledge of science as already discovered knowledge in Vedas and to make fun of the ability of modern science that can never attain the higher state of self presumed spiritual knowledge. An earnest effort in finding out their exact scientific meanings and connotations as given in Vedas was never taken up by any spiritualist and can never be taken up by them because the very system VEDANG (वेदांग) of finding out has already been destroyed systematically and replaced by a pseudo system. Refer HISTORICAL BACKGROUND in THIRD BLUFF- YOGA (Continued -2). In Patanjali YOG SUTRAS (योगसूत्र) there is a mention of NABHI CHAKRA (नाभि चक्र) in SUTRA सूत्र 29 of chapter III and various parts of body have been referred to in the following sutras up to SUTRA III-34 as obvious subjects worth knowing about the structure of human body and its functions. Nowhere these parts of body have been joined to convey the idea of some awakening of KUDALINI (कुण्डलिनी).In fact neither the words awakening (JAGRAN जागरण) and KUDALINI (कुण्डलिनी) have been used anywhere by Patanjali nor the essential sequence of awakening of CHAKRAS (चक्र) beginning from MULADHAR CHAKRA (मूलाधार चक्र) and ending at SAHSRAR CHAKRA (सहस्रार चक्र) has been mentioned in the SUTRAS.. Rather the mention of the parts of the body is quite independent and in isolation as if quoted as examples to illustrate a concept. In SUTRA III-29 from where the mention of the body parts begins, it is NABHI CHAKRA (नाभि चक्र) completing skipping the sequence places of the CHAKRAS mentioned at a) and b) above. The name given for the place of navel is NABHI CHAKRA (नाभि चक्र). It is not MANIPUR CHAKRA (मणिपूर चक्र) as coined by the spiritualists. Then in SUTRA III-30 it is the hollow of the throat (KANTH KUPE कंठ कूपे) and it is not VISHUDDHI CHAKRA (विशुद्धि चक्र) as coined by the spiritualists, again skipping the sequence of the CHAKRAS mentioned at d) and e) above. Then in next SUTRA III-31 it is the KURM NADI (कूर्म नाड़ी) i.e. the nerves of the eyelids or a nerve of tortoise shape positioned beneath the throat again nowhere mentioned in the sequence of KUNDALINI JAGRAN (कुण्डलिनी जागरण) propagated as part of PATANJALI YOG. In the next SUTRA III-32 it is the head MURDH मूर्ध, the highest point in human body and in SUTRA III-34 he comes down to the heart (HRIDAYह्रदय) from the head. The absence of names and sequence of these CHAKRAS in Patanjali’s SUTRAS, the essential requirement for KUNDALINI JAGRAN (कुण्डलिनी जागरण) clearly point out the bluff and it is intentional sell out to fool the gullible. In the name of knowledge (GYAN ज्ञान) ignorance (AGYAN अज्ञान) is spread, in the name of religion (DHARM धर्म) superstitious ritual (ADHARM अधर्म) is promoted and ultimately, in the name of action (KARM कर्म) an absolute benumbing lethargy (AKARMANYATA अकर्मण्यता) is encouraged. The research efforts are needed to find out the exact meanings and contexts of these Vedic CHAKRAS (चक्र), most probably the scientific and technical subject matter covered under Vedic efforts in finding out about self (ATM GYAN आत्म ज्ञान), instead of running after the discoveries of modern medical sciences and finding CHAKRAS in those terms without even acknowledging and feeling grateful. The medical science will leap forward tomorrow and the bluffers in the spiritualists will again try to update still deriding the scientific knowledge as inferior. This game of bluffing must stop only because it is not the behavior advocated by Patanjali YOG or even the YOGA as understood and propagated by the spiritualists.
BLUFF OF YOGA – A COMPLETE MEDICAL SCIENCE
This bluff attracts the maximum number of followers of YOGA. It also indicates the standard of physical health of the followers. The majority of them are sick people suffering from some physical ailment. They also start suffering from some mental disorder the moment they are convinced about the treatment efficacy of any saleable package of YOGA discussed so far. This package of YOGA as a complete medical science fails all tests of scrutiny and if still the people believe so; one can only pity. YOGA cannot be a complete medical science for the following reasons:
· Nowhere in 195 sutras of Patanjali Yog Sutra has any claim been advanced by the author to project it so. Had this been the intention he could have easily begun his treatise thus: ATH AYURVEDANUSHASNAM (अथ आयुर्वेदानुशासनम) meaning it explicitly that “here I begin the discipline of medical science”. There was a word AYURVED (आयुर्वेद) available for medical science. Instead he chose ATH YOGANUSHASANAM (अथ योगानुशासनम्) meaning it explicitly that “here I begin the discipline of YOG (योग)”.
· The word YOG (योग) does not have by any stretch of imagination any dictionary meaning which qualifies it to be even an equivalent of medical science or any branch of medical science. The question of being complete medical science does not arise at all
· It is simple arithmetic that even if we take into consideration the total number of hymns in Vedas i.e. 20,379 – the source material for the concept of YOG, this number is abysmally insufficient to cover a single branch of modern medical science.
· Even in Vedas there is no such claim. The authors of Vedas have made two very significant observations about knowledge. One attribute of knowledge is that it is complete (PURNAMID पूर्णमिद). The second point is their frank admission that this knowledge is so vast that there is no end to it (NETI NETI नेति नेति) meaning thereby that whatever they have found is not even a fraction of it and continuous efforts to find out more and more should always remain the human pursuits. The bluff propagated by the spiritualists quoting the authority of the Vedas is that since YOG (योग) is knowledge, it is complete (पूर्णमिद) adding medical science from their side for selling purposes and completely disregarding the frank admission part of ‘no end to it (NETI NETI नेति नेति) and thus blissfully ignoring that YOG is that found out fractional knowledge only which is insignificant in front of that vast and complete knowledge. By calling it complete in any way amounts to putting full stop to any further quest and accept blindly whatever little was found out by the authors of Vedas as the ultimate. This line of argument suits the Divine Origin (APAURUSHEYTA अपौरुषेयता) concept mischievously designed by spiritualism. But as per Patanjali, this kind of misplacement of reason is listed under psychic disorders (CHITT VIKSHEP- चित्त विक्षेप) and is called BHRANTI DARSHAN (भ्रान्ति दर्शन). Here it amounts to actually intentional cheating with a view to spreading a bluff for selfish purposes.
· In Patanjali Yog Sutras, the nearest mention of a medical word is in Sutra I-30 where nine kinds of distractions have been grouped under the title CHITT VIKSHEP (चित्त विक्षेप) which may be translated as psychic disorders. In Sutra I-31, five symptoms of CHITT VIKSHEP (चित्त विक्षेप) have been enumerated and in Sutra I-32, practice has been suggested as the only solution to come over these psychic disorders. Besides these, five body parts have been mentioned in the Sutras of chapter III as given under the bluff of KUNDALINI JAGRAN (कुण्डलिनी जागरण) explained earlier. Can these eight mentions of psychological behavior and anatomical parts and mention of a word (AUSHADH औषध) meaning medicine / drug in chapter IV-1, make YOGA a complete medical science? As per Patanjali the answer is in the negative but the spiritualists insist upon proving it so. CHARAK and SUSHRUT who wrote treatises on medicine and surgery must be wondering on this earlier incarnation of this man of medicine going by the name of PATANJALI
· The efforts so far to prove YOGA a medical science revolved round the word ASAN (आसन) a component of Patanjali YOG, interpreted and developed by HATHYOG (हठयोग) differently on lines that may be called somewhat medical in approach as a concept of physical postures that can be helpful in treatment and precaution parts of medical science while Patanjali’s scientific approach is completely different as discussed earlier under the paragraph YOG EXPLAINED in THIRD BLUFF YOGA (continued-1) This approach makes ASAN (आसन) as understood by HATHYOG (हठयोग) as a medical subject alright but still YOGA as a whole does not become a complete medical science as propagated by the spiritualists.
· The latest approach to prove YOGA a complete medical science is advocated by SWAMI RAMDEV. The TREATMENT part of medical science is based on a package so designed by him to include a smattering of ASANS (आसन) and cleansing processes as developed by HATHYOG (हठयोग), a mixture of some aerobics and indigenous exercises which he calls YOGIC JOGGING, some selected breathing exercises known as PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम) the only genuine part of Patanjali YOG, all supported by AYURVED (आयुर्वेद) the Vedic medical system and some pieces of advice of keeping acupressure techniques at hand. For DIAGNOSIS part of medical science he depends on modern pathology as he knows there is no mention of any diagnostic system in YOGA and the AYURVEDIC SYSTEM of pulse reading is either dead or inadequate. For SURGERY part of medical science, he knows it is futile to take chance in any emergency as there is no provision in YOGA for any surgical system. With all these infirmities and outside riders on YOGA, it is just not possible to consider YOGA as complete medical science as far as his recommended treatment package is concerned.
· However, he still prefers to consider YOGA as the complete medical science. The reasons advanced by him are twofold. First he challenges the taboo concept of ‘CURE’ of modern medical science and firmly believes that complete cure of ailments is possible through PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम) package as it treats, heals and restores that body system which has gone astray and is thus responsible for the onset of the disease. Secondly, he depends upon the statistics to prove his assertions. For identifying body systems he rechristens the CHAKRA (चक्र) concept of Vedas and equates them with convenient body systems studied by modern medical science. For him the CHAKRAS (चक्र) are the controlling points of the systems. That way all systems like excretory, reproductive, digestive, skeletal, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and endocrine are controlled by various CHAKRAS which are set in functional mode by five kinds of breath (PRAN प्राण) identified as PRAN प्राण, APAN अपान, UDAN उदान, SAMAN समान and VYAN व्यान. He, therefore, draws a clear line of difference between the approach of modern medicine and yogic approach of PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम). He thinks that modern medicine approach is SYMPTOM oriented. It has got to diagnose the symptoms and then proceed to treat and this treatment generally leads to the onset of further symptoms of known and unknown diseases. That way this approach leads to a vicious circle where the symptoms have got to be diagnosed again and again and thus the taboo of never ‘CURING’ and resting on the intelligence of ‘MAINTAINING’ only. On the other hand he finds the YOGIC approach a SYSTEM oriented approach as the breath (PRAN प्राण) attacks the diseased system and rejuvenates it. It does not require diagnosis aspect of medical science. For this reason does it become a complete medical science? Then what about innumerable other aspects of medical science where the need to diagnose still remains. Further does diagnostic medicine as knowledge evaporate that way? Can remaining blissfully unaware of a system be a symptom of marching towards enlightenment? Or making efforts in the direction of knowing and failing and failing again and again and thus adding to the data base of knowledge in each failure; are the steps in the direction of enlightenment Vedas advocate this step as there is nothing wrong in it. Rather it is the foremost human duty (DHARM धर्म) to keep on making efforts without ever getting disheartened by failures. However, his approach does raise certain pertinent questions the answers to which may add revolutionary advances in medical field. What exactly is the concept of CHAKRAS? Does PRAN (प्राण) have regenerative properties also? Can the other parts of the body besides the liver be regenerated by PRAN? Can it stop degeneration completely? What exactly the Vedic scholars meant by PRAN (प्राण)? Is it oxygen? Then what are the ten kinds of oxygen? How did they find out its five main kinds and five lesser kinds and their functions? These are the questions likely to come up and waiting to be answered. If the answers are already there in Vedas or a hint of finding out is there, the spiritualistic approach has already closed the path of finding out by insisting on DIVINE ORIGIN (अपौरुषेयता) and, therefore, accepting blindly whatever is propagated by the spiritualists as Vedic knowledge. Therefore, as a proof for this he depends on statistics only. No doubt a wonderful assertion based on a lot of dissertation found in Vedas about the breath (PRAN प्राण) and CHAKRAS (चक्र) if these are to be interpreted as systems now as he claims; but it still needs to go through serious scientific investigations as scientific knowledge does not depend upon statistics. Rather the phenomenally large statistics in favor is mostly the cause of our all the bluffs / ignorance in most of the fields. One way of its becoming knowledge is scientific validation.
· Even if the above mentioned assertions in the last paragraph are proved correct with reliable and valid scientific investigations, the bluff of promoting YOGA as the complete medical science by the spiritualists still remains. At the most it will prove that PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम).as one of the eight components of Patanjali YOG is helpful in overcoming the psychic disorders / distractions coming in the way of aims / processes of YOG like forming an objective (धारणा), sticking to that objective (ध्यान) and achieving that objective (समाधि) And that is exactly what Patanjali is saying about PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम). Nowhere has he said that this component of YOG will ultimately lead to making YOG a complete medical science. Most probably he knew it fully well that YOG and medical science are two entirely different disciplines to be studied independently. Patanjali has referred to CHAKRA and a few anatomical places and two kinds of breath UDAN (उदान) and SAMAN (समान) in third chapter dubiously called as VIBHUTI PAD (विभूति पाद) by the spiritualists, to quote as examples of objective formation in overall methodology of YOG. I shall discuss this methodology and how it has been converted into a bluff of various supernatural powers of YOGA and YOGI under the next titles of various bluffs as propagated by the third chapter VIBHUTI PAD of YOGSHASTRA..