MYTHS OF SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF YOGA AND YOGI
THIRD BLUFF YOGA (Continued-4)
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
INTRODUCTION TO THE BLUFFS OF SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF YOGA AND YOGI
The sutras of Patanjali Yog Shastra have been interpreted as supernatural powers possessed by a yogi. Such an interpretation amounts to bluffing. These sutras if interpreted otherwise point to in fact the quintessence of entire creation. The author has exhorted the readers to get into the habit of finding out the secret hidden in innumerable sequences (KRAM क्रम) of all happenings by quoting various examples from different fields. But it was not to be as it would have hit the bread and butter interests of spiritualism straightaway. All bluffs regarding supernatural powers possessed by a practitioner of YOG are the outcome of the third chapter titled as VIBHUTI PAD (विभूति पाद) of Patanjali Yog shastra meaning the chapter of boons. The beginners and the regular practitioners, all without exception, remain under a permanent illusion because of this name and tacit propaganda associated with it that some boons will accrue to them someday or the other. Nobody so far has been or can ever be blessed with such powers by artificially created gods who have been approached through bluffing techniques of RAJYOG (राजयोग), YOGA (योगा), SAHAJYOG, GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग), KARMYOG (कर्मयोग), BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग) and HATHYOG (हठयोग) for the simple reason that Patanjali himself in his YOGSUTRAS in the same third chapter in Sutra III-37 makes it quite explicit by using very strong words that only for half mad / partly deranged (VYUTHANE व्युत्थाने) these examples can become as boons. For a student of YOG whose ultimate aim is achievement of that discerning ability referred to as PRAGYA / VIVEK / KAIVALYA (प्रज्ञा / विवेक / कैवल्य) through EXECUTION OF AN OBJECTIVE- (SAMADHI समाधि) , even to think on the lines of boons (SIDDHIS सिद्धयः) is a symptom of death / evil etc. (UPSARG उपसर्ग). In other words the boons as well as the various varieties of YOGA proclaiming boons as discussed earlier are non-existent in Patanjali’s concept of YOG. A simple and easy to implement approach can be followed to avoid the temptation of these distractions leading to disaster. The results, I can assure, will be far more miraculous for the entire humanity than imaginary and unrealizable boons advocated by any spiritualist thought. The following DOS’ and DONTS’ are to be adhered to under any circumstances:
DOS’ AND DONTS’
a) Never interpret any so called boon sutra of this chapter in isolation. In isolation the sutras give supernatural meanings as propagated by the spiritualists. The meanings are quiet different if the proper context is kept in mind as advocated by Patanjali. The contextual sutras are from Sutra (III-1) to Sutra (III-15) and the contexts are SANYAM (संयम) and PARINAM (परिणाम).The subjects for SANYAM (संयम) are given in sutras (III-1) to (III-3) and its objects are twofold, first the birth of insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) as given in sutra (III-5) and secondly its application (VINIYOG विनियोग) in any field of knowledge as given in sutra (III-6). The fields of knowledge can be only two i.e. SABIJ (सबीज) from where the insight can be gained about the principles and its applications and NIRBIJ (निर्बीज) where the so gained insight can be applied in its innumerable sub-fields. For gaining and application of that insight from SABIJ (सबीज) and NIRBIJ (निर्बीज), the subjects of SANYAM (संयम) mentioned in sutras III-1 to III-3 should be treated as inward bound or ‘internal’ (ANTRANG अन्तरंग) in SABIJ (सबीज) and outward bound or ‘external’ (BAHIRANG बहिरंग) in NIRBIJ (निर्बीज) as given in sutras (III-7) and (III-8) respectively. Sutra III-9 to Sutra III-15 explain the context of PARINAM
b) The contextual words are highly technical words with absolute precision and cannot be given arbitrary explanations The only explanation is as given by Patanjali in contextual sutras. For example SANYAM (संयम) cannot be interpreted loosely to mean any of these three i.e. ‘concentration, meditation and illumination’ depending upon convenience of whim. It has got to be TRAYAMEKATRA (त्रयमेकत्र) meaning togetherness of three concepts as given in sutra (III-4) i.e. forming an objective (धारणा sutra III-1), sticking to that objective (ध्यान sutra III-2) and whole hearted efforts in achieving that objective (समाधि sutra III-3) and there is a definite process laid down for achieving SANYAM. Similarly, PARINAM (परिणाम) is not any loose result or happening but a well defined cumulative effect of one’s efforts of PRACTICE (NIRODH निरोध.sutra III-9 and sutra III-10), UNWAVERING ATTENTION (DHYAN ध्यान sutra III-11) and EXECUTION (SAMADHI समाधि sutra III-12) on the abstract and concrete parts i.e. properties (DHARM धर्म), symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and states of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था) of the matter / natural elements (BHOOTभूत), a subject studied under BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) and senses of the human body (INDRIYAN इन्द्रियां), a subject studied under ATM GYAN आत्म ज्ञान (sutra III-13) . Such efforts are bound to notice changes and come to conclusions about the changes in properties, symptoms and states of existence of matter and senses which exist again within well defined parameters depending upon the species and environment of time and place (sutra III-14). These changes follow a definite sequence (KRAM क्रम). Presence of these millions of sequences in natural elements and human body is called PARINAM (परिणाम) (sutra III-15). It simply means that one has to find out the never changing order / sequence (KRAM क्रम) to understand PARINAM. (परिणाम). One should get into the habit of finding out the sequence of any happening. That’s why Patanjali lays down the sequence to understand all the so called boon sutras and illustrates the importance of sequence in sutra III-16 wherein the aim is to find out anything concerning the past and the future. He reinforces it by giving various examples so that the habit is formed and he concludes the chapter by reminding the importance of sequence in sutra III-52 and by explaining it further till the end in sutras III-53, III-54 and sutra III-55. It mentions unequivocally that it is only through understanding the sequence and its dimensions the ultimate knowledge (VIVEK विवेक) can be gained .(क्षण तत्क्रम्योः संयमाद्विवेकजं ज्ञानम्)
c) Never interpret a routine word in spiritual sense. It is rather strange that on one hand we tend to find loose and simple meanings of technical words that have been clearly defined and explained by Patanjali and on the other centuries of conditioning tends to force us to find and accept those meanings only of even simple and routine words that have spiritual undertones rather than obvious. For example the word PURV JATI पूर्व जाति in sutra III-18 is immediately understood and accepted as rebirth PUNAR JANM पुनर्जन्म instead of PURV पूर्व meaning earlier, before or previous and JATI जाति meaning class or group. So the word meaning ‘earlier group / class of genes’ (PURV JATI पूर्व जाति) becomes ‘again birth’ (PUNAR JANM पुनर्जन्म). There are many words in these sutras so interpreted and I shall be referring to them as and when the respective bluffs are discussed.
d) Never allow your judgment to be influenced by spiritual jargons. All bluffs employ a simple strategy of playing with the words for achieving the aim of acceptability and spiritualism is no exception. The strategy is threefold as far as the use of words is concerned. First a set of new pedagogical and attractive words are created that are more pedantic in nature than substantial. Secondly, technical words already existing in some other discipline are manipulated to suit the bluff as explained in b) above. Thirdly, routine words are given the coloring of the bluff to be propagated as explained in c) above. These three combined are called the jargons of that bluff and over a period of time each school of YOGA has invented its own inventory and they keep on adding or deleting as per the demands of bluff and they are never in agreement about the meaning of the same word since spiritualism is a free for all concept. The price paid for it does not remain realizable as a victim becomes a complete bankrupt mentally, intellectually and economically
e) A fact always to be kept in mind is that all boon sutras have got three parts structure wise. The three parts are SUBJECT, SANYAM संयम and THE EFFECTS OF SANYAM संयम. The first part denotes a subject and it is bound to be a topic either from BRAHM GYANब्रह्म ज्ञान or ATM GYAN आत्म ज्ञान, the initial classification of entire knowledge by Vedic scholars for study purposes. Therefore, Patanjali chooses in sutra III-13 the terms BHOOT भूत meaning natural elements studied under BRAHM GYAN ब्रह्म ज्ञान and INDRIYA इन्द्रियां meaning ‘senses’ studied under ATM GYAN आत्म ज्ञान. The topic is different in each sutra as Patanjali is explaining his methodology of finding out the parameters of existence of natural elements and senses through various examples related to the context of PARINAM (परिणाम). The subjects most probably give a fair idea about the branches of knowledge that were of current interest during Patanjali’s period. In the first part of these sutras, therefore, he picks up an area from the subjects like astronomy, mathematics, grammar, linguistics, psychology, genetics, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology and medicine etc. A modern Patanjali would have chosen the subjects for illustration purposes from information technology, computer science anti-gravity, anti-matter, nano-technology, and quantum, nuclear or molecular areas of knowledge. However, it wouldn’t have made any difference to the overall concept of methodology of approaching any knowledge. The second part is always to be understood to be related to the context of the word SANYAM संयम as given in a) above and it covers the three subjects of SANYAM संयम whether the word is actually written or not. The third part consists of the objects of SANYAM संयम or THE EFFECTS OF SANYAM i.e. the birth of that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) which makes anyone aware of the principles responsible for the third part and its ‘further application’ (VINIYOG विनियोग ) in any field of knowledge.
f) First and third parts are reciprocal and cyclic in functioning. It is interesting to note that if the first part of a sutra is replaced by its third part then the first part can be easily substituted by the third part and vice versa. It means that there is a cause and effect relationship between the first and third part of the sutras. It also gives an indication that it is cyclic in functioning. The process of cause becoming effect and the effect becoming cause continues. A graphic presentation in summary form of this has been added at the end in each “STANDARD TRANSLATION AS PATANJALI MEANT” for each sutra as RECIPROCAL STATEMENT OF THIS SUTRA to reinforce the concept of COMPLETENESS (पूर्ण) and PERMANENCE (अपरिणामी. It will read as -”if------third part of the sutra--------becomes the SUBJECT of study then ---------first part of the sutra----------becomes the OBJECTIVE.”
g) In each sutra new branches of knowledge have been indicated that are worth discovering. Instead of looking for impractical boons that have been propagated as subjects of higher knowledge as suggested by the spiritualist YOGA, approach should be to accept the possible area of research that has been clearly mentioned in the sutra and which has the possibility of blossoming into a full fledged subject eager to shower the innumerable boons for the entire humanity. The boon finding approach is selfish and clearly designed to serve the interests of a chosen few who can bluff. I have therefore added in block letters ‘BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATED’ at the end of each STANDARD TRANSLATION AS PATANJALI MEANT.
h) Beware of the fact of the sutras being grammatically incomplete and being generally manipulated when these are translated in any language. Because the translation is a grammatically complete sentence and it may give an entirely different meaning that was most probably not even intended by the original phrase. The sequence of thought with proper contexts has to be kept in mind to arrive at the intention of the author
i) Finally, it has to be clearly understood that all happenings are natural. These are supernatural as long as a natural explanation is not found out. If we accept the bluff of supernatural as a valid explanation it is bound to give birth to a chain of bluffs where the sense of curiosity has been silenced by miracles. Conversely, if we accept the reason of natural as a valid explanation it is bound to give birth to a chain of judgments where curiosity keeps on adding to the pool of human knowledge. In other words, a YOGI cannot be the victim of supernatural powers because the technique of YOG just develops and sharpens the inbuilt faculties of judgment and discretion possessed by all human beings. The bluff of supernatural powers possessed by a yogi must be nipped in the bud as Patanjali advocates in sutra III- 37
Keeping the above points in mind, all the boon sutras can be analyzed and the analysis so arrived can be juxtaposed with spiritual analysis for anybody’s comparison so that the bluffs spread about the supernatural powers of the YOGA and YOGI are easily called. A structure wise graphical representation of the sutras is given below to grasp their meanings as Patanjali wanted along with a structure as propagated by spiritualistic representation
A LAYOUT OF STANDARD SCRIPTS OF EXPLANATION GIVEN BY PATANJALI AND THE SPIRITUALISTS
Taking the contexts into consideration as given in sutras III-1 to III-15, Patanjali now lays down the sequence in sutra III-16 for understanding the remaining sutras. The spiritualistic explanations have converted this sutra also into a bluff of acquisition of power of knowing the past and future and have continued to pile up bluff after bluff for the remaining sutras without even caring for the guidance given in this sutra.
(III-16) PARINAM TRYA (first part showing SUBJECT and OBJECTIVE to be chosen) / SANYAMAD (second part showing SANYAM) / ATITA ANAGAT GYANAM (third part showing a sequence KRAM of a result PARINAM)
The guidance is simple and straightforward. He expects the readers to understand that whatever subject from BRAHMGYAN / ATMGYAN you may choose; your objective should be to find out THREE dimensions of PARINAM (परिणाम) as far as the first part of any so called boon sutra is concerned. The three dimensions are properties (DHARM धर्म), symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and state of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था) as these are the only areas in which sequences (KRAM क्रम) are formed which are absolutely essential basic steps to know about any subject. He therefore, puts awareness of sequence (KRAM क्रम) as a resultant of the efforts in third part of the sutra subject to the observance and application of complete context of SANYAM संयम given in second part of the sutra. Taking these clues from this Sutra, it is possible to draw a general translation script with two relevant interchangeable blanks for the first and the third part of sutra to be filled up suitably as these will differ from sutra to sutra:
STANDARD OUTLINE OF THE SCRIPT AS PATANJALI MEANT
“If you have made up your mind (DHARNA धारणा) to choose your subject of study as finding out the properties (DHARM धर्म), the symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and the states of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था), the three dimensions of PARINAM परिणाम about ---------------- (purport of the first part as given in the Sutra) -------------------------------, a subject of senses (INDRIYAN इन्द्रियां covered under ATM GYAN आत्मज्ञान) / natural elements (BHOOT भूत) covered under BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्मज्ञान)
And you are determined to pay never distractible attention (DHYAN) in order to stick to this decision under any circumstances and you are confident of working wholeheartedly (SAMADHI समाधि) come what may for execution of this decision; you are likely to get that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) into the principle of sequence (KRAM क्रम) of ------------------------------------------, which will be of help to you
In understanding -------- (purport of the third part as given in the Sutra) ---, and you should be able to make use or implement (VINIYOG विनियोग) this understanding in any field of further exploration like---------------------------”.
BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATED -------------------------------------
RECIPROCAL OF THIS SUTRA – If ------- (third part of the sutra) --------becomes the SUBJECT of study then --------- (first part of the sutra) ----------becomes the OBJECTIVE.”
The following Sanskrit words given in the above script and a few more occurring in the sutras are highly technical as these have been defined or explained by Patanjali or in Vedas. These should not be stretched and made synonyms of words of other languages. Rather these should be accepted in the pool of human knowledge as such. I shall discuss them in details later under UNIQUE CONCEPTS OF YOG. However, for understanding purposes at present in English language, the nearest equivalents or explanations in use are given in front of the words with implicit warning of not making them synonyms and taking due precaution in considering them unique because these are nonexistent in English language:
· DHARNA (धारणा) – technically one part out of eight parts of YOG and is the result of a well explained process by Patanjali as formulation of an OBJECTIVE by CHITT चित्त but generally translated in English as objective, aim or decision lacking the elements of CHITT चित्त and PROCESS
· DHYAN (ध्यान) – technically one part out of eight parts of YOG and is the result of a well explained process by Patanjali as unwavering attention and sticking to DHARNA (धारणा) formulated by CHITT चित्त but generally translated in English as meditation, attention, concentration and a fixed body posture again lacking the elements of CHITT चित्त and PROCESS
· SAMADHI (समाधि) – technically one part out of eight parts of YOG and is the result of a well explained process by Patanjali as working wholeheartedly towards the realization of OBJECTIVE formulated by CHITT चित्त but generally translated in English loosely as concentration, illumination again lacking the elements of CHITT चित्त and PROCESS
· SANYAM (संयम) – technically the result of a cumulative process of DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN ध्यान and SAMADHI समाधि as discussed by Patanjali but generally translated in English loosely as discipline, concentration
· DHARM (धर्म) – technically a subject discussed in details in Vedas having only two meanings PROPERTIES and DUTIES and discussed in the present context by Patanjali meaning properties only of NATURAL ELEMENTS and SENSES but translated in English as religion (Refer SECOND BLUFF- RELIGION for details)
· PARINAM (परिणाम) – technically a universal law with three dimensions mentioned above of never changing sequence (KRAM क्रम) operating in entire creation but translated in English loosely as result, change, effect etc.
· CHITT (चित्त) – technically a term that is non-definable as millions of its hues will continue to be the subjects of exploration and thus explainable only. As per Vedic knowledge a physical entity, a gene with definite property of performing functions but translated in English as mind, psyche, consciousness, heart, soul etc. and generally accepted in spiritualistic approach as ATMA (आत्मा) that is nowhere existent in Patanjali Yogsutras)
· VRITTI (वृत्ति) – technically a term that is non-definable as millions of its hues will continue to be the subjects of exploration and thus explainable only. As per Patanjali, physical entities to be studied as classified groups only but translated in English as tendency, instinct, drive etc.
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC TRANSLATION, COMPARISON WITH EXPLANATION GIVEN BY PATANJALI
The spiritualistic explanation does not accept this sutra as a master sutra in which a formula for understanding all the boon sutras has been given. For them it is just like any other sutra in which a boon has been doled out. For them the sutra is in fragment form with three parts and may not be a grammatically complete sentence. But a translation in any language will be a grammatically complete sentence for them and disregard the context totally which the author has given in preceding fifteen sutras or give a context that Patanjali has not mentioned anywhere. Its translated form is arrived at by filling in the blanks of the following translation script that is on the lines as under:
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC OUTLINE OF THE TRANSLATION
By MEDITATING / CONCENTRATING (translation of second part SANYAM) on ------------- (first part of the sutra) --------------a yogi is blessed with the power of ------------------------------ (third part of the sutra).
The standard spiritualistic translation of sutra III-16 thus arrived at runs as follow
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC TRANSLATION
By MEDITATING / CONCENTRATING on an abstract concept of three kinds of PARINAM परिणाम a yogi is blessed with the power of knowing everything that has happened in the past and everything that is going to happen in future.
BLUFF PROPAGATED – A YOGI IS OMNISCIENT ABOUT THE HAPPENINGS IN THE PAST AND FUTURE
The spiritualists propagate the above translation. They further explain the second part not as SANYAM संयम as per Patanjali but by using mainly the arbitrary terms meaning ultimately meditation or concentration as advocated by various forms of spiritualistic YOGA (योगा), RAJYOG (राजयोग), SAHAJYOG, GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग), KARMYOG (कर्मयोग), BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग) and HATHYOG (हठयोग) etc. which Patanjali has not mentioned anywhere. This concentration on three kinds of PARINAM (परिणाम), the first part of the sutra, is generally achieved in an effortless sitting or lying body posture as recommended by the system one believes in and keep on hoping endlessly that one will be blessed with the boon of knowing past and future if not in this birth, in next and next births because somebody has been authorized to keep a record of one’s number of efforts made in sitting and lying postures to get a wish fulfilled. Who wont like this easy and unverifiable path of becoming some kind of YOGI or at least a GOD fearing person who has been further conditioned to believe that he is not getting desired results because there had been some kind of known or unknown deficiency in his process of making efforts which he knows to be effortless but does not want to accept as basically devoid of efforts. Now compare this explanation with what Patanjali has tried to convey:
“If you have made up your mind i.e. DHARNA धारणा, stick to it come what may, with complete dedication DHYAN ध्यान and work whole heartedly for it with devotion and execution oriented SAMADHI समाधि
To select a topic for your study from the general area of PARINAM परिणाम which has got two main branches ; natural elements and senses with three dimensions of ‘properties’ (DHARM धर्म) , ‘symptoms’ LAKSHAN (लक्षण), and ‘state of existence’ AWASTHA (अवस्था) ;
You are likely to get that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) which makes you aware about the sequence (KRAM क्रम) of previous and future forms of natural elements and senses. And this awareness you can apply (VINIYOG विनियोग) in any field of future exploration”
Let me explain it by a simple example of water, a natural element. It has got different stages named as AWASTHA (अवस्था) of existence viz. solid, liquid and gas. In each AWASTHA (अवस्था) it has got different recognizable symptoms named as LAKSHAN (लक्षण) and properties named as DHARM (धर्म). The movement from one stage AWASTHA (अवस्था) to another follows a definite sequence (KRAM क्रम) made up with distinct properties and symptoms. The awareness of this sequence (KRAM क्रम) can enable one to either predict the next or to know the previous by analyzing the present So instead of understanding a simple scientific fact of the various states of matter the spiritualistic explanation has blown up the entire thought process of Patanjali and converted it into a non- achievable illusion of a boon of PREDICTION and knowledge of the PAST- the areas studied under astrology (JYOTISH ज्योतिष) again a subject created or mutilated from astronomy (JYOTIR VIGYAN ज्योतिर्विज्ञान) by the spiritualists for bluffing purposes. Had it been a real knowledge the problem areas of finding out in any branch of knowledge discovered so far by human mind would have vanished by just consulting a yogi astrologer. He would have straightaway unveiled the secrets of history, politics, geography, geology, anthropology, botany, zoology, physics, chemistry, in a way the secrets of entire creation or the designs of war, economics or politics made for the future, just by calling upon his powers of peeping into the PAST and looking into the FUTURE. Instead, what he does presently is taking the gullible into his unverifiable previous and future births and failing miserably in predicting the happenings to him even within say, next five minutes. And still we prefer to be ruled by those incorrigible superstitions of auspices that tumble upside down in spite of taking all the precautions for fear of some ill-boding advised and predicted by the headstrong astrologer. If this is not bluff then what is! If this is not abject surrendering of freedom of thought, speech and action then what is!
The simplicity of the example of water given to illustrate the meaning of this sutra can give the wrong impression to many in the present day world that Vedic knowledge deals with either primitive or hardly worth mentioning or pursuing subjects of science. For such a mindset let me assert unequivocally that in the present context of this SUTRA (III-16) only, the area of knowledge hinted is neither primitive nor hardly worth mentioning. It is like the once most primitive finding of FARADAY of interchanging electricity and magnetism and thus giving birth to a new branch of knowledge known as ELECTROMAGNETISM or once the most primitive way of finding GRAVITY in a falling apple by NEWTON and thus inspiring EINSTEIN and NARLIKER to come out with most primitive and yet to be verified theories of RELATIVITY or ANTI-GRAVITY or once the most primitive way of adding ZERO to the concepts of MATHEMATICS by ARYABHATTA leading to the present binary digital system or still the most primitive enunciation of the THEORY OF EVOLUTION by DARWIN or realm of PSYCHO-ANALYSIS by FREUD and yet the most challenging as these are yet to be verified concepts in spite of overwhelming evidence in favor. The ideas are never primitive. These are nascent only at one stage and keep on fructifying and opening the innumerable possibilities for mankind. In Vedas, there is no claim anywhere that they are dealing with nuts and bolts of such and such subject as FARADAY didn’t make any claim to future subject of ELECTROMAGNETISM or till recently NORMAN BORLAUG considered the very idea of fathering a new branch of knowledge GREEN REVOLUTION as ‘miserable’, though the world around persists in addressing him as such. The idea given in this sutra has much larger ramifications and does point towards the basics of entire creation. The basics are hidden in the concept of PARINAM (परिणाम) that is the presence of innumerable sequences (KRAM क्रम) in its three dimensions and, therefore, he amplifies it by giving examples from various other branches of knowledge in which PARINAM (परिणाम) is the only source of proceeding towards more and more awareness or giving birth to completely new disciplines. A thing as it appears now is because it was in such and state (AWASTHA अवस्था) just previously and just repetitive ‘previously’ with such and such properties (DHARM धर्म) and such and such symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and it will be next in such and such form with its related properties and symptoms. Does this process come to an end somewhere? No, it does not because the entire operation is cyclic and keeps on repeating itself. This fact emerges from the sutra when we find that the first and third parts of the sutra are interchangeable. The ‘objective’ becomes ‘result’ and the result becomes objective. The cause becomes the effect and the effect becomes the cause and it is bound to keep on going endlessly thus indicating the PERMANANCE of happening (APARINAMI अपरिणामी) and COMPLETENESS (पूर्ण). The only task for the human beings the VEDAS thus exhort is to make OBJECTIVES as their duty (DHARM धर्म) to find out the vastness of that circle where the awareness of those sequences (KRAM क्रम) of any effect (PARINAM परिणाम) becomes repetitive and thus COMPLETE. In this Sutra, therefore, Patanjali is communicating those attributes of knowledge as a whole which the Vedic scholars have found and not the attributes of physics or chemistry. In Vedas, the attributes of knowledge have been found out so that these become responsible for giving births to various branches of human awareness. That’s why we have the names VED (वेद) meaning KNOWLEDGE and the concept of UPVED (उपवेद) - meaning the derived awareness of various subjects like medicine (AYURVED आयुर्वेद), science of archery (DHANURVED धनुर्वेद), science of music (GANDHARV VED गन्धर्ववेद) and architecture (STHAPATYA VED स्थापत्यवेद).The term UPVED (उपवेद) too has been translated by the spiritualist thought conveying the sense of some inferior knowledge not worth aspiring and thus the very path to be followed leading to the progress as advised by Vedas was blocked by a danger sign reading, ‘’ROAD BUMPY AND HAZARDOUS-TURN LEFT” And in this sutra a Pandora box of all subjects that can take birth as new areas of awareness related with natural elements (BHOOT भूत) and senses (INDRIYA इन्द्रियां) has been indicated and a scientific method of finding out has been advocated where the first step is by tackling the common factor i.e. three dimensions of PARINAM (परिणाम) which is the essence of entire creation. The spiritualistic explanations have converted these subjects into NON ACHIEVABLE AND THUS NON BENEFICIAL BLUFFS OF YOGA. The very path shown by Patanjali Yog Sutras to finding out the real boons for humanity through really miraculous spectacles of science has been blocked. I’ll discuss these miracles of YOG one by one in succeeding postings and compare each with the respective bluff of YOGA