THIRD BLUFF-YOGA (continued -2)
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
(B) MIXING OF PARALLEL TREATISES ON YOG -
YOG as explained by Patanjali is a concept derived from Vedas and it incorporates the concepts of ATM GYAN (आत्म ज्ञान), BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) and the methodologies of knowing these through observation and experimentation (यज्ञ विधान) and practical application (व्यवहारिक नैतिकता). That is exactly the entire subject matter of all the Vedas and thus PATANJALI YOG SHASTRA (पतंजलि योग शास्त्र) can be easily considered as summum bonum of all the Vedic knowledge. Besides Patanjali there are other treatises which claim the same source i.e. Vedas but present about YOG an entirely different picture than Patanjali. Over a period of time all these have been mixed up so much and that too in the name of Patanjali; that not only Patanjali but even the original authors of Vedas will be awe struck at this ingenuity. The complete essence of Patanjali presentation has thus been lost. Before the implications of mixing the parallel treatises on YOG with Patanjali are elaborated and thus committing the mistake of considering every idea mentioned in those as attributable to Patanjali, it is essential to deliberate upon the pertinent facts about Vedic hymns (मंत्र), the source from which the entire concept of YOG has been derived and the historical background that may explain the mechanics of this inevitability of unholy mixing. The facts are:-
· Vedic concepts are shrouded in the mysteries and the intricacies of a language that is dead now.
· The concepts have not been discussed as a whole at one place under one head or in one book only. These are scattered all over the four books indicating various authors over a well spread out period. It is said that the task of compiling and coordinating this knowledge was undertaken by the sage Vyas who is referred to as VEDVYAS for this reason alone. This process has created confusion about the authenticity of a concept to be accepted as Vedic or not
· The words denoting a concept acquire meanings in the context and co- text these are used. The same word will give an entirely different meaning in a different context
To extricate any concept from such a source is like searching for a particular herbal plant SANJIVNI (संजीवनी) from the jungle of entire vegetation growing on a plateau and all looking alike and all being useful. To make it still difficult and worse, spiritualistic explanations are putting all sorts of spokes by forcing an inquisitive mind to begin with a contrived premise of ‘Divine Origin’ (अपौरुषेयता) of Vedas. Even when the language it is written was not dead it is perfectly logical to presume that an excellence in specialization in linguistics must have been the essential requirement to understand its functioning. The four areas of linguistics i.e. phonetics (शिक्षा), the science of prosody (छंद).grammar (व्याकरण) and etymology (निरुक्त) were thus considered pre-requisites for understanding Vedas as is evident from the term VEDANG (वेदांग) meaning the parts of .The remaining two areas of VEDANG (वेदांग) are astrology ( JYOTISH ज्योतिष) and rituals ( KALP कल्प) which must have meant initially the knowledge of mathematics and therefore, more as astronomy (JYOTIRVIGYAN ज्योतिर्विज्ञान), and the knowledge of conducting experiments ( YAGYA यज्ञ) respectively for which there are plenty of proofs in Vedas. ‘Astrology’ and ‘rituals’ as understood today do not make any sense as helping material in understanding the concepts of Vedas. Or these two must have been substituted as such later on during Upanishad period (उपनिषद काल) when a successful, intentional conspiratorial sort of campaign was launched to convert scientific Vedic concepts into imaginary spiritualistic dogmas which were propagated to be higher knowledge than scientific truths (Refer FIRST BLUFF- SPIRITUALISM in this series for details). For achieving this end it appears a new yardstick of Vedangs (वेदांग) was manufactured and implemented successfully by the spiritualists which became essential requirement to understand rather to misunderstand the essence of Vedas. It consisted of rituals (कल्प), astrology (ज्योतिष), the science of prosody (छंद) and adding two more i.e. Rishi (ऋषि) and Devta (देवता). Over a period of time the term Devta (देवता) became synonymous with lesser gods. These two were defined in such a way that:
a) In each Vedic hymn a Rishi (ऋषि) and a Devta (देवता) must be hidden who have got to be identified by the learned
b) Same person or thing can be Devta (देवता) at one time and be Rishi (ऋषि) at the other time with inbuilt facility of performing reversible roles.
c) Devta (देवता) was to be identified as that thing or person about which a hymn is written thus creating innumerable personified Devtas (gods). The simple and only straightforward meaning of DEVTA (देवता) i.e. a person or thing endowed with such and such properties (GUN-गुण) meaning DHARM धर्म (Refer SECOND BLUFF-RELIGION) which were so painstakingly found out as the core area of Vedic knowledge (आत्म ज्ञान and ब्रह्म ज्ञान) that can be put to use and worth endless pursuit as knowledge, was never encouraged by the spiritualists. Rather a train of personified gods, semi-gods and demigods was created in each Vedic hymn after hymn and bestowed them with superhuman powers mentioned as properties (GUN- गुण) therein. The irony was that these gods who were created by human beings only acquired such gigantic shapes, sizes and powers that the creators were so much awe-struck and terrified that they started worshipping them. Or, was it a design and not irony? Yes, it was a design by spiritualism. Because the remedial measures of worshipping i.e. rituals and sacrifices in order to appease these self created gods was systematically outlined in KALP (कल्प), a Vedang that was purposefully designed to twist and mutilate Vedic experimentation techniques (यज्ञ विधान)
d) Three categories of things or persons were to be identified as Rishi (ऋषि).First who benefited by reciting that particular hymn at different occasions; second whose specific wish was fulfilled by reciting that particular hymn. Whosoever succeeded in propagating the myth that he had mastered the art of getting desired fruits by reciting a hymn so many millions of time became a Rishi (ऋषि) of that hymn. In today’s parlance such a person goes by and is revered as the MANTRA SADHAK (मंत्र साधक) and a SIDDH (सिद्ध) The third type of Rishi (ऋषि) was of those who were of Devta (देवता) category and a few of them were original receivers (दृष्टार) of that hymn from the almighty BRAHMA. The complete concept of Rishi (ऋषि) as the acquisition of flawless form of reason, discerning ability (विवेक) was thus made a plaything for everyone.
The above approach was so suggestive, infectious and easy that there must have been a competitive urge to become one such or associate self with one or the other Rishi (ऋषि) by drawing lineage and prove such and such to be one’s lineage teacher (कुल गुरु) and such and such to be the presiding deity (कुल देवता). Rishi (ऋषि) and Devta (देवता) were made so cheap and easily attainable statuses by the above definitions that no doubt, we find in all spiritualistic literature, Rishis and Devtas full of all sorts of human flaws like jealousy, envy, greed, competing for reward and scared of punishment, anger, sexual debauchery and fear etc, so much so that fear of death after every deluge (मन्वान्तर पश्चात् प्रलय) forces every Devta to hide himself in Vedic hymns. The only qualification to be Rishi or Devta of being flawless (निर्गुण) in discretion (विवेक) and judgment (न्याय), that is to be above ignorance (क्लेश), reward and punishment (कर्म), sin and virtue (विपाक) and any kind of desire (आशय), was thus thrown to winds in exchange of some never achievable and never certifiable miracles given in the new definitions. Miracles are the ingredients of staple diet of spiritualism and it cannot survive without them. And you don’t have to be a spiritualist to know that miracles will continue to exist as long as human beings are ignorant but you have to be a spiritualist who bluffs to exploit this ignorance. Three areas of linguistics i.e. phonetics (शिक्षा), grammar (व्याकरण) and etymology (निरुक्त) were thus completely eliminated or retained for ornamental and pedagogical purposes only. It had dangerous and detrimental consequences in the long run but served the purpose well. First it hastened the process of death of the Vedic language and secondly, autocracy and clergy were not only introduced in social system but were firmly established as awful and domineering institutions as these provided shortcuts in the form of astrology (ज्योतिष), rituals (कल्प) and mumble jumble of hymns (छंद) to appease innumerable deities (देवता) in order to become follower of knowledge i.e. Vedas. Thirdly, no scholar, social reformer or leader in any field of any human activity, illegal and immoral fields inclusive, till date could afford to disregard ‘spiritualism’ born out of ‘Divine Origin’ concept. The basic cause of ‘Divine Origin’ (अपौरुषेयता) or the parallel concepts of ‘Received Knowledge’ or ‘Deliverance’ were never challenged by anyone in any civilization. All considered it blasphemous to pinpoint the cause. The question of doing away with it does not arise. It became a sort of ‘holy cow’ for any path breaker in India in spite of the fact that they were all highly charged people even at the cost of their lives and comforts. They all had a single minded devotion to the path of passion which had become their choice to carve out for themselves mostly due to prevailing circumstances of their age. They all wanted to be heard. They were all so much possessed with the idea of ridding the society of the evil they had seen that they found the society wrapped in spiritualism an easy listener and nobody saw any harm in the ways of spiritualism. Rather it was considered to be a virtuous path due to the centuries of conditioning. Hence nobody neglected the technique of gaining instant acceptability so successfully employed by spiritualism anywhere so far. Starting right from VEDVYAS to GAUTAM BUDDH to SHANKARACHARYA to all the saints of middle ages to RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY to SWAMI DAYA NAND, VIVEKANAND to MAHATMA GANDHI, all employed spiritualism to achieve their desired goals. It is surprising that the chosen cause of each leader’s passion was an ill born out of some prevailing concept of spiritualism only which they resented and against which they set out to fight except MAHATMA GANDHI who saw in British unjustness the cause of slavery. But all without exception employed the tools of spiritualism only to achieve their goals. In other words they were fighting spiritualism with their versions of spiritualism only. Nobody thought of eradicating the basic cause of spiritualism that is the irrational concept of ‘Divine Origin’. It has happened everywhere in human history, is happening now and will continue to happen till we do away with the concept of ‘Divine Origin’. The spiritualism will then die its natural death. Till then we will continue to aid unwittingly the sinister design of spiritualism and remaining under the illusion of a virtuous path. The design is simple. To put it bluntly in a phrase: “ Spread ignorance (read ‘bluffs’) by any means, as it travels faster and / or let the people remain ignorant (read ‘bluffed’)” This technique was born out of the travesty that the autocracy, clergy and every common man always had this basic understanding that there was never a shortcut to knowledge and will never be. But the human tendency to find out shortcuts was exploited to the hilt and is being employed today also even when the autocracy has generally been replaced by the concept of a ‘welfare state’. Such spiritualistic approach to Vedas could never have found out that scientific essence that Patanjali illustrated in his YOGSUTRAS In the present context of YOG the outstanding names besides many Upanishads as protagonists of spiritualism are VASHISHTH (वशिष्ठ) and VYAS (व्यास) who have dealt extensively with the subject in the treatises VASHISHTH YOG, SHRIMADBHAGWAT and BHASYA SUTRA etc attributed to them respectively. Even the non conformist and reactionary philosophies of Jainism and Buddhism could not help appreciating and incorporating YOG as a neo- spiritualistic practice. I call it neo for they were anti Vedas alright but not anti spiritualism. Their brand of neo-spiritualism which they substituted, denied the existence of GOD as illustrated in Vedas or as was being made to be understood by the then existing and propagated bluffs of spiritualism oriented Upanishads. In the distant philosophies of Plato, Pythagoras, ESSENE sect of Jews, Neo-Platonism sects of Plotinus and Proculeius in 3rd century AD YOG has been appreciated and referred to as a spiritualistic practice. Irrespective of the debate whether Patanjali preceded the Upanishad period or was a contemporary or wrote his treatise as a reaction, the fact remains that all latter day translators and commentators of YOG SUTRAS (योग सूत्र) of Patanjali, without exception, tend to base their commentaries on some spiritualistic premise introduced by Upanishads and exhorted by VASHISHT and VYAS. The notable works and names are Maniprabha (मणिप्रभा) by Ramanand ( रामानंद) in 7th century AD, Patanjali Yogsutra Bhasya Vivran (पतंजलि योगसूत्र भाष्य विवरण) attributed to Shankaracharya (शंकराचार्य) of 8th century AD,Tattvavaishardi (तत्त्ववैशार्दि) by Vachaspati Mishra (वाचस्पति मिश्र) in 9th century AD, Rajamartand (राजामार्तंड) by Bhoj (भोज) in 11th century AD, Yogvartika (योगवर्तिका) by Vigyanbhikshu (विज्ञानं भिक्षु) in 12th century AD, Nageshvritti (नागेश वृत्ति) by Nagesh Bhatt (नागेश भट्ट) in early 18th century AD and Chandrika (चन्द्रिका) by Narayan Tirth (नारायण तीर्थ) in late 18th century.. In all these spiritualistic treatises the emphasis revolves round the control of ‘mind’- as to be understood spiritually and not a scientific concept. In the 12th century AD another angle that is ‘the discipline of the body’ emphasizing body postures (आसन) was added to spiritualism by Gorakshnath (गोरक्षनाथ) – founder of SHAIV sect (शैव मत) and a new school of YOG which became famous as HATH YOG (हठ योग). The basic texts of this school were written between twelfth and fifteenth centuries and prominent among them are Gorakshpaddhati (गोरक्ष पद्धति), Hathyogpradipika (हठयोगप्रदीपिका), Gherundsanhita (घेरंड संहिता) and Shivsanhita (शिवसंहिता).Since spiritualism emerged as a free for all concept with no definite, defined and verifiable parameters: an element of arbitrariness reigned supreme not only in all the commentaries or sub-commentaries but in practice also. All sorts of meaningless, bizarre rituals were introduced to achieve magical powers known as Siddhis (सिद्धि). The theories and practices of spiritualism depicted an imaginary range for the journey of soul from here to eternity, thereby achieving communion with GOD, one of the literal meanings of YOG, or resting in its primal, pristine or pure form of thoughtlessness, often bordering on a state of trance, hypnotism, comatose, catalepsy, hysteria or acquiring magical and supernatural powers. The western scholars and clergy either tried to dismiss it as oriental mysticism or were awestruck by comparing, incorporating or practicing it as Christian mysticism. Thus we are surrounded by interpretations which are not only at cross purposes but many a times completely diverse and contradictory and still quoting Patanjali as source of their inspiration and presentation. The various bluffs and myths due to this unholy mixing are discussed under the succeeding paragraphs.
BLUFFS OF VARIOUS SALEABLE PACKAGES OF YOGA
In this category are those bluffs which carry the name YOG / YOGA in their nomenclature and thus tend to give the impression that these are also the postulations by Patanjali. For this a simple attractive, harmless or a word from the sutras of Patanjali is prefixed to YOG. The basics of all these saleable packages are any or many of the following ingredients. The aim is to sell by hook or crook. The first three of these have already been discussed under THIRD BLUFF-YOGA and these are the basic failures on the part of any commentator and thus giving rise to the bluffs.
· A complete disregard to the definitions given by Patanjali and depending more upon the dictionary meanings only and still proclaiming genuineness.
· Relying more on the part fact that the Sutras are grammatically incomplete sentences because it gives leverage for arbitrary interpretations, but not on the irrefutable fact of a definite sequence adopted by Patanjali, thus negating the incompleteness. In isolation anything can be incomplete; even Vedic hymns.
· Not taking into consideration the reasons and the choice of words made by Patanjali in his presentation.
· A fact known to everyone concerned but still never to be fulfilled promise to make one meet with GOD in this body and lifetime only.
· A fact known to everyone concerned but still never to be fulfilled promise to make one acquire miraculous powers that can be imagined in dreams only.
· A fact known to everyone concerned that a never to be verified promise to make one ultimately free of the shackles of life and death eulogized by the term MOKSHA (मोक्ष)
· A promise to cure all the diseases with a rider that whatever is written in one’s account has to be endured.
· A promise to rid one of all kinds of mental, material, social, financial and worldly tensions
· A promise to lead one to that land of El Dorado where there is no dearth of prosperity.
· Designing a package in such a way that it contains any one aspect out of eight limbs (अष्टांग) of YOG. Actually five viz. ASAN (आसन), PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम), DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN (ध्यान) and SAMADHI (समाधि) out of eight are being sold out so successfully that anyone practicing any of these straightaway qualifies oneself to be addressed as YOGI (योगी)
· Designing a package in such a way that it contains a smattering of all aspects of YOG mentioned by Patanjali and other parallel treatises and still selling it in the name of Patanjali
For achieving this, wonderful packages with enchanting names and guaranteed success rates of the prescriptions mentioned therein have been designed over a period of time and are being designed every now and then. All carry the authority of Patanjali though he has nothing in common with anyone of them. A few of them are discussed below:
BLUFF OF RAJYOG, SAHAJYOG AND YOGA
Two very common names that are considered and passed on by many as synonyms of Patanjali Yog are RAJ YOG (राजयोग) and YOGA (योगा). Patanjali in his treatise has nowhere given the name RAJ YOG (राजयोग) to his discipline that he calls YOG (योग) only and introduces it as such in the very first sutra. This name is not his coinage. He has borrowed this term from Vedas and proceeded to explain whatever he could extricate about this concept from the source. The term RAJ YOG (राजयोग) is thus a figment of imagination by some spiritualist who wanted to put on the garb of a RAJA (राजा) i.e. a king and thus get a vicarious satisfaction of prestige, power and sophistication that are associated with a royal. The term is now used loosely and all sorts of explanations are given to justify the term. The term YOGA is pronounced by a native English speaker for Sanskrit word YOG due to his inbuilt articulation system and the mechanics of English language. He pronounces it naturally as YOGA as he pronounces RAMA and KRISHNA because he cannot pronounce YOG, RAM or KRISHN. For him the sound of letter “A” coming in the end is the transliteration denoted by the symbol inverted “e” as given in Daniel Jones’ dictionary of pronunciation. But an Indian having the knowledge of even a smattering of English will tend to pronounce naturally as per behavior pattern of native languages any word having the letter “A” in the end as denoted by the sound of vowel आ in Indian languages which is denoted by the symbol [a:] in transliteration scheme mentioned ibid. This he does even when he knows the correct pronunciation. He does so for another reason also. In our enthusiasm to ape, bequeathed to us by Macaulay doctrine and due to sluggishness and confusion acquired by us as followers of spiritualism we had practically forgotten about YOG in whatever spiritualistic interpretations it was available. Our experts thought of augmenting the sources of income of spiritualism and started exporting the terms RAM, KRISHN and YOG which got imported in nice and attractive packages of RAMA, KRISHNA and YOGA. The word YOGA like the word RAJYOG has thus actually been passed on to Indian lexicon and mindset as a symbol of sophistication possessed by a person who can speak English. Both these words are spiritualistic packages designed to attract and have nothing in common with scientific Patanjali Yog. Similarly the term SAHAJ meaning simple and easy has been prefixed to YOG to give the impression that this package is simple and very easy and can be performed by anyone and the same benefits can be achieved as advocated by the other varieties of YOG which are rigorous and difficult to perform. What an enticement of a shortcut! Who won’t like to fall prey to such an invitation!
BLUFFS OF GYANYOG, DHYANYOG AND KARMYOG
These bluffs are in circulation and have been manufactured by adding the prefixes of GYAN (ज्ञान), DHYAN (ध्यान) and KARM (कर्म) to YOG (योग). All these prefixes are found in Patanjali Yog Sutras. Thus an impression is conveyed that whatever is postulated by these branches of YOG are the offshoots of Patanjali’s thought process only. Besides these, it is said that fifteen more types are discussed in GITA (गीता). If so, these are the part of the thought process of the confirmed spiritualist VEDVYAS, the author of PURANS (पुराण), SRIMADBHAGWAT and BHASYA SUTRAS etc. In Patanjali YOGSUTRAS the words GYAN (ज्ञान), DHYAN (ध्यान) and KARM (कर्म) have been defined, discussed or elaborated independently at different places but we don’t find any one of them in compounded form with the word YOG anywhere in the text. In other words it simply means that in Patanjali’s explanations there are no concepts like GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) or KARMYOG (कर्मयोग) and the subject matter discussed in them is entirely the contribution of VEDVYAS which may or may not be in tune with Patanjali’s concept of YOG. But still the concoctions sold out by the modern spiritualists are vouched as originating from Patanjali only and each one of them is guaranteeing his package only as the genuine version of GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) or KARMYOG (कर्मयोग). Yes, all these packages of GYAN (ज्ञान), DHYAN (ध्यान) and KARM (कर्म) also are so much at variance that these appear to be the commodities at shelf either soap or toothpaste, waiting to be disposed off depending upon the TRP generating capability. The interpretations of GYAN (ज्ञान), DHYAN (ध्यान) and KARM (कर्म) vary for the simple reason that these terms have been converted into arbitrary spiritualistic dogmas from scientific concepts in spite of most exhaustive and logical presentations by Patanjali and Vedas.
BLUFF OF GYANYOG
Patanjali considers GYAN (ज्ञान) to be the source and reason of entire universal activity. The movement of heavens, the thundering of clouds, the flowing of breeze, the blossoming of flowers, the humming of bees, the chirping of birds are only a few of the innumerable and unlimited activities and happenings covered under BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान). The innocence of childhood, the ceaseless effort of adolescence, the resolution of an adult, and the different shades of emotions are only a few of the innumerable and unlimited behavioral activities and happenings covered under ATM GYAN (आत्म ज्ञान). Then Vedic GYAN (ज्ञान) further encompasses in its fold the relationship between ATM GYAN (आत्म ज्ञान) and BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) and the methodologies of finding and applying it. Patanjali’s GYAN (ज्ञान) is thus a suffix to ATM (आत्म) and BRAHM (ब्रह्म) and there is no intention of adulteration by manufacturing a saleable package of arbitrary definitions of some GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग) by prefixing GYAN (ज्ञान) to the term YOG (योग) that he has chosen from Vedas as it is, and maintains its pure form as he borrowed it. On the other hand GYAN (ज्ञान) as explained by various varieties of GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), though overtly claim to be an effort by each variety to find out that relationship between BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) and ATM GYAN (आत्म ज्ञान) mentioned in Vedas but in the process, all of them first mutilate the very concepts of ATM (आत्म) and BRAHM (ब्रह्म) and then secondly, concoct a term GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग) to justify their explanations. In fact the commonalities of each one of these varieties can be summed up as systems each proclaiming:
· My package is knowledge (GYAN ज्ञान) and yours is ignorance (AVIDYA अविद्या).
· My package is of superior quality and yours is inferior.
· Whosoever accepts my package is bound to be a person of higher stage in the ladder of evolution and is thus on the verge of getting MOKSH (मोक्ष) – freedom from the cycle of life and death
· Only the people ordained by GOD come to accept my package.
By a simple logic of interpolation no package of GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग) is thus worth paying any attention and get enmeshed into the jugglery of words that leads nowhere.
BLUFF OF DHYANYOG
Now consider the theories of DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) which are generally sold as meditation techniques for comparison with Patanjali’s concept of DHYAN. For Patanjali DHYAN (ध्यान) is ability to stick to an objective DHARNA (धारणा). Many people do make resolutions every now and then but how many stick to them or follow them resolutely. Making an objective and sticking to it, are both equally important steps in Patanjali’s scheme of DHYAN (ध्यान). The choice of the field of objective is the most natural thing for a person. To find out and to solve his problems are the most expected concerns of a human being. The objectives of entire human activity have revolved round the curiosity of finding out about self i.e. ATMGYAN (आत्म ज्ञान) or about the things around i.e. BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) and will continue to be so because there is no end to curiosity and there is no end to knowledge (ज्ञान). Why do I love or hate? Why do I feel pleasure or pain? Why do I compete or feel jealous or envious? Why do I make even supreme sacrifice for a cause, principle or nation? Why do I behave selfishly? Why am I healthy (SWA+STH स्व + स्थ i.e. stable in self)? Such and thousand other emotions (वृत्ति) were definite subjects and formed individual objectives to pursue for the authors of Vedas. In the process they also found out the reasons for bluffing / ignorance (AVIDYA अविद्या) and considering it as intelligence. Besides these objectives from ATMGYAN (आत्म ज्ञान) they were also interested in the questions from BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान). Why do the heavens move? How did the entire creation come into existence? What is its structure? Why the winds blow and the rains flow? Why is the harvest and why is the drought? The objectives cannot be limited to the discoveries of ATM (आत्म) and BRAHM (ब्रह्म) alone. The inventions also form a sizeable part of Vedic objectives. How to make myself comfortable? How to move faster? How to be better equipped? Such other questions must always have occupied their minds. On the other hand all DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) packages invariably claim to show overtly that DHYAN (ध्यान) is the methodology of finding GYAN (ज्ञान) as methodology of finding and implementing is the integral part of Vedic knowledge GYAN (ज्ञान) The commonalities of all the practices of DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) revolve round the following:
· Objective is substituted by an object which can be, tip of the nose, centre of forehead, thumb, candle light, breath or any imagination with closed eyes in any of the prescribed body posture (ASAN आसन), sitting, standing or lying
· Keeping the body still with fixed attention on the object chosen for DHYAN (ध्यान).
· Hoping to achieve some miraculous power known as SIDDHI (सिद्धि) by continuous practice of remaining idle in some body posture.
Obviously no package of DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) can ever lead to the realization of an objective of discovering or inventing something simply because there is no objective set in the beginning. It is only an unrealizable bluff that can lead to a stunted state of mind bordering on lethargy.
BLUFF OF KARMYOG
KARMYOG (कर्मयोग) is no package to entice but its contents are used to create awe towards other packages and its nomenclature is used by many to take pride just like RAJYOGI (राजयोगी) in being KARMYOGI (कर्मयोगी) presuming it to be a philosophy that is action i.e. KARM (कर्म) oriented. These are the people who realize instinctively or by simple logic the idleness, laziness and bluffs associated with the propagators of GYANYOG (ज्ञानयोग), DHYANYOG (ध्यानयोग) and BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग) etc. The irony is that the entire philosophy of KARMYOG (कर्मयोग), overtly appearing to be action-oriented is actually based on a kind of fatalism that encourages not ‘ACTION’ but ‘INACTION’ and has thus made a mockery of the Vedic philosophy of ACTION (कर्म). It has got to be so because the same author has designed it to be a supplement of all the other varieties of YOG. Now look at the postulates of KARMYOG (कर्मयोग) and possible inference given after each postulate;
a) Either you do or it will be done by the universal laws of ACTION. People involve themselves in action primarily for the reason that they know that there is no one else to do on their behalf. The knowledge that there is somebody else to do will automatically lead to INACTION or to a worse deplorable classification of actions and human beings into a range from ‘high’ to ‘low’.
b) Better do because you are the chosen one and thus destined to do. What a temptation! You do because you are the privileged one; a minority, and look down upon those who are not; a majority. Hence a majority is destined to be INACTIVE.
c) Since you are just an agent of the Supreme Will, your right is only to do and not to expect results. Compare with a lifeless puppet where the question of action does not arise at all or a bonded labor where the life called JIVATMA (जीवात्मा) which is supposed to carry the imprint of all your actions of all the births has just been inserted into a frame for performing robotic actions only. The very essence of action that is freedom of will of human beings only has thus been jeopardized. The animal world surprisingly, invested with the same JIVATMA (जीवात्मा) is free to act and is looked down upon for this reason alone. In preaching and practice of ACTION of KARMYOG (कर्मयोग), is thus an unbridgeable gap
d) The ledger of accounts of your deed will be duly kept and you will be rewarded or punished perpetually in the present life or in the lives to come. On one hand one is not permitted to do anything because the very action and human form are destined and on the other an element of perpetual fear is introduced by such a postulate. The aim appears to be to make one perpetually helpless. Even ARJUN, the great action oriented warrior in mythology was not impressed by these postulates till he was put in a helpless position by showing him the actual form of the specter of GOD himself in KRISHN.
e) Either to escape the wrath of innumerable gods or to get the boons from them you must do the prescribed rituals – the actions born out of so much of fear that even questioning the reason of doing is looked down upon as blasphemous and an invitation to calamities set out by the angry gods. The very concept of ACTION कर्म was thus reduced to the rituals (कर्मकांड) only to be indulged into from birth to death and even after death. This custom is leading to the birth of some or the other appeasable god daily and some or the other imaginary, arbitrary, desirable ritual to be performed, generally at the astronomical costs which could easily eliminate and mitigate the untold miseries of the mankind. Instead, the indulgence in immediate rituals of worshipping is resorted to ward of the calamity. There is not a single day, month or year that has not been reserved for these artificial gods and not a single second that has been spared the auspicious aspect A sacred thread (रक्षा कवच) is tied round the hand to protect oneself from the unknown dangers. The fasts are undertaken to protect the near and dear ones from the dangers or to get the secret wish fulfilled. So designated holy places are visited to earn a place in the heavens (SWARGस्वर्ग). A volley of mumble jumble of hymns is chanted or got chanted on behalf without ever understanding the meaning of the words to ward off the calamity or to appease the all powerful stone deity. Alms (दान) are given as acts of piety with so many secret wishes attached to get back its double or treble if not in this birth then in never verifiable next birth. Holy dip is taken on auspicious days in so called holy but actually stinking rivers to wash off all the sins of all the births. A simple glance at the rituals will confirm that in the name of performing actions (कर्म), a perfect state of hibernation is achieved where effort, the first component of action is straightaway sacrificed.
In order to give credibility, a set of pedagogical words were coined, introduced and explained by adding them to the existing word KARM (कर्म). The words are AKARM (अकर्म) meaning non-action, VIKARM (विकर्म) meaning anti-action, PRARABDH (प्रारब्ध) meaning actions of the previous birth, SANCHIT KARM (संचित कर्म) meaning total deeds for which the reward or punishment has not yet been meted out. Not a single word of this list is found in Patanjali Yogsutras. The entire concept of action KARM (कर्म) as given in Patanjali Yogsutras was twisted to mean INACTION only. Here is what Patanjali has to say about ACTION (कर्म). For him it is a journey beginning with NIRODH (निरोध) in second formula (SUTRA-सूत्र) of first chapter and ending with PURUSHARTH (पुरुषार्थ) in the last formula (SUTRA-सूत्र) of the last chapter. Two kinds of actual involvement in action are further explained by the word NIRODH (निरोध). One is the repetitive PRACTICE of ‘what is intended to be done’ denoted by the word ABHYAS (अभ्यास) and second is the repetitive PRACTICE of ‘what has been decided by an individual as not to be done being distraction’ denoted by the word VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य). The word PURUSHARTH (पुरुषार्थ) in the last formula has been explained as the acquisition of that competence through ABHYAS (अभ्यास) and VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य) which wipes out any traces of five types of KLESH (क्लेश) explained as IMAGINARY SPECIFIC INTELLIGENCE (ISI) under PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION in SECOND BLUFF – RELIGION (continued). This competence further wipes out any trace of involving in any action because of handsome compensation or not involving because of fear of punishment by some invisible hand. Such competence also wipes out any trace of involving in action by subjugating oneself to any kind of desire (ASHAYA आशय) or on the consideration of being virtuous or sinful The involvement is entirely due to the emergence of that discerning ability (VIVEK विवेक) that has been cultivated by actions of continuous practice (TAP तप), by continuous updating (SWADHYAYA स्वाध्याय), by continuous disciplining of the body and mind (SHAUCH शौच); and is completely aware of the consequences of its actions and thus is not dependent on directions or goading of some imaginary destiny or supreme will as given to understand by the impostor KARMYOG (कर्मयोग) that prohibits action in practice
BLUFF OF BHAKTIYOG
Unlike the three types of YOG discussed in the preceding paragraph where the concerned prefixes do find mention in the Patanjali YOGSUTRAS, the prefixed word BHAKTI (भक्ति) of BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग) does not occur anywhere in Yogsutras. This YOG also is a brain child of the author of other varieties of YOG mentioned above and is a twisted form of a Vedic concept. The yogic concept of ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वर प्रणिधान) has been made to form the fountain head for the maxims of BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग).Here also the element of effort, the basic requirement of any ACTION has been sacrificed and replaced with activities demanding negligible and meaningless effort. The maxims and the possible inferences are given under to call this bluff:
a) BHAKTI (भक्ति) is the highest form of worship. If so, then there must be lower and the lowest forms of worship also. Lot of breath and ink is wasted daily by the BHAKTI (भक्ति) ideologues in the jugglery of words to prove work, love and respect etc. as the lower forms of worship. Beware those who take pride in the dictum ‘work is worship’ or ‘God is Love’. Even the other methods of worshipping are not acceptable to any kind of BHAKTI (भक्ति) spiritualism.
b) God always comes in person to the aid if the worshipper (BHAKTभक्त) is in distress. To qualify to be such a devotee (BHAKT भक्त) that even God is at his beck and call, a definite ritualistic system must have been instituted and to accept GOD as a super human - an anthropomorphic concept must be a pre –requisite. Yes, these are the two essential ingredients of devotion (BHAKTI भक्ति).The ritualistic system consists of such effortless actions as putting on a recognizable peculiar dress, smearing the body with ash, pasting sandal mark on the forehead, putting RUDRAKSH beads round the neck and arms, chanting the hymns without even ever knowing its meaning, repetitive remembering (SMARAN स्मरण) of the name of the prescribed god either loudly or quietly and keeping an account of the number of times it has been done, lighting the candles and incensed sticks in front of the idols and pictures of gods; cleaning, washing and giving water, milk or honey bath to the idols, offering token food to the god and taking it back as bounty (PRASAD प्रसाद) given by god, doing AARTI (आरती) a specific act of worshipping the idol with a metal plate containing food items, flowers, incense, a lighted earthen lamp etc in hands and taking it round and round the face of the idol, ringing the bells in front of the idols, lying prostrate with folded hands in front of the idol, singing songs of praise (BHAJAN भजन) and dancing, keeping fasts, taking holy bath on specified days only in rivers that have been dirtied by selfish and foolish actions, visiting the so propagated holy places (TEERTH तीर्थ), exhort people to give charity (DAAN दान) as more you give more you will get in some birth and help you attain freedom from the cycle of birth and rebirth; and the list is endless. To appeal to the suggestibility of the people such parables have been circulated that even if someone happens to perform any prescribed act by accident, the concerned god appears immediately before him and is willing to fulfill his wishes. If such are the criteria for being a devotee (BHAKT भक्त) then all those who don’t follow this worshipping system cannot ever become devotees, howsoever recognizable their contribution for the welfare of humanity might be. The master craftsmen like KABIR (कबीर), RAHIM (रहीम), and RASKHAN (रसखान) of BHAKTI period (भक्ति काल) of Hindi literature can never be put into the category of devotees simply because they observed a different worshiping technique. Fault lies in the narrow standards of judgment laid down by an imaginary concept eulogized as spiritualism which on one hand is not willing to accept them as devotees and on the other gleefully recites and quotes their compositions during the proposed worshipping process. Such standards will not accept even SURDAS (सूरदास), TULSIDAS (तुलसीदास) and MEERABAI (मीराबाई) also as devotees (BHAKT भक्त) as they are so because they have put in exemplary hard work in creation of exquisite literature and not because they have followed an effortless process of worshipping. For qualifying to be a devotee (BHAKT भक्त) one must be an idler looking extremely busy.
c) God keeps on putting a devotee (BHAKT भक्त) under various kinds of test to ensure his genuineness. It is a strange logic. On one hand God is omniscient, keeping a record of all the deeds of all the births and on the other HE wants to ensure the genuineness of his devotee by putting him under various tribulations and trials. To counter this obvious anomaly in the dictum of BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग), it is further argued to impress the gullible that God knows even the future of his devotee yet HE does so in order to set an example for others. Is God a political persona also who needs to promote himself? That’s how God has been reduced to the level of behavior pattern of a mortal human full of tricks, deceit and treachery.
d) God bestows upon his devotee (BHAKT भक्त) various kinds of miraculous powers. After ensuring genuineness of a devotee, God grants any wish or boon asked for. Nothing could be more absurd than remaining in a fool’s paradise like this. Had it been so the humanity would not have suffered any so called misery? Nobody would have fallen sick. Everybody would have conquered death. All would have been filthily rich. Only one devotee (BHAKT भक्त) was adequate to achieve all the prosperity. We would have never lost any tournament as all devotees (BHAKTS भक्त) would have straightaway indulged in prayers which they are doing now also but failing. We would have never lost a war because somebody else a lesser devotee would have lost. Here comes the inbuilt contradiction in the premise of this maxim of BHAKTIYOG (भक्तियोग).
Now let me analyze the concept of ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वरप्रणिधान) that has been twisted to mean idle BHAKTI (भक्ति) or ASTHA (आस्था) by the spiritualists. This concept has been introduced in sutra 32 of chapter-II of Patanjali Yogsutra. It is one of the five rules (NIYAM नियम) that must be observed if one does not want to waiver in pursuit of his objective (DHARNA धारणा). Because not sticking to an objective is a sure sign of a disturbed mind and a cause of distraction. The sutra is:
(II-32) शौचसंतोषतपः स्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रणिधानानि नियमाः
(II-32) SHAUCH SANTOSH TAPAH SWADHYAYESHWAR PRANIDHANANI NIYAMAH
The above five rules (NIYAM नियम) form one part out of eight parts (ASHTANG अष्टांग) of YOG. It has been defined in sutra II-45 as under:
(II-45) SAMADHI SIDDHIRISHWAR PRANIDHANAT.
In this sutra Patanjali has used four words viz. SAMADHI (समाधि), SIDDHI (सिद्धि), ISHWAR (ईश्वर) and PRANIDHAN (प्रणिधान).The words SIDDHI (सिद्धि) and PRANIDHAN (प्रणिधान) are of daily use and ISHWAR (ईश्वर) and SAMADHI (समाधि) he has already defined earlier. Since the word PRANIDHAN (प्रणिधान) can be used in the sense of ‘application of’, or ‘use of’ or ‘respect to’ or ‘complete surrender to’ etc., he uses the compound word ISHWARPRANIDHAN (ईश्वरप्रणिधान) making it specific meaning ‘APPLICATION / USE OF KNOWLEDGE’ The word ISHWAR (ईश्वर) here stands for KNOWLEDGE that he has already clarified. The word of common use SIDDHI (सिद्धि) means perfection / achievement / completion / result etc. The word SAMADHI (समाधि) as clarified earlier by Patanjali means ‘wholehearted execution of set plan to achieve objective (DHARNA धारणा)’. So overall this sutra means:
“By application of knowledge (ISHWARPRANIDHAN ईश्वरप्रणिधान) one can achieve perfection (SIDDHI सिद्धि) in wholehearted execution (SAMADHI समाधि) to achieve any objective”.
Thus Patanjali’s emphasis is on ever awareness and making use of that knowledge which is always present all around as a support and helps in sticking to an objective and thus never to lose heart. But a spiritualist BHAKTI YOG (भक्तियोग) enthusiast translates the same sutra as follows:
“By complete surrender to an imaginary human form of god (ISHWARPRANIDHAN ईश्वरप्रणिधान) one can achieve unimaginable powers (SIDDHI सिद्धि) by getting into a rarely achievable trance called SAMADHI (समाधि)”
BLUFF OF HATHYOG
The word HATH (हठ) like BHAKTI (भक्ति) does not find any mention in Patanjali Yogsutras. But still various physical postures and exercises elaborated and discussed as ASAN (आसन) by the founder of this school are propagated in the name of Patanjali only. These are wonderful exercises and do have the benefits associated with any physical activity. But to sell them in the name of Patanjali is a bluff and it appears to have been done on the ground that GORAKSHNATH, the founder happens to use the word ASAN (आसन) that has been used by Patanjali as one of the eight parts of his treatise YOG. The explanations given by the two authors for the same word are entirely different. Patanjali’s treatment of ASAN (आसन) has already been discussed earlier in THIRD BLUFF YOGA (Continued-1). In Patanjali’s YOG SHASTRA (योगशास्त्र) there is no mention of any physical posture while HATHYOG (हठयोग) deals primarily with as many physical postures as the number of species and considers the study of these postures as a meaningful design to gain expertise in a specific property possessed by that species. It is believed that a continuous persistence i.e. HATH (हठ) with a posture will lead to the acquisition of that capability which is the specific domain of that species. It is further extended to mean a technique known as TANTRA (तंत्र) of acquiring unimaginable magical powers by continuous practice of a posture. Ghastly and horrible practices of even offering human sacrifice are added accompanied with consumption of drugs, alcohol, sexual orgies sanctified by mumble jumble of hymns.
Needless to say that Patanjali has nothing in common with HATHYOG (हठयोग) but the spiritualist have designed convenient packages of a few physical postures (ASANS आसन) and a few breathing techniques (PRANAYAM प्राणायाम), all in the name of Patanjali, to sell at exorbitant rates without any liability to the already highly stressed gullible populace that will as it is bound to get some relief even if a minor change in routine say getting up early in the morning, is effected