THIRD BLUFF-YOGA (continued-1)
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
THE RESOLUTIONS OF BLUFFS AND MYTHS OF YOGA
After knowing the crucial facts of presentation employed by Patanjali this is the second step we must take if we are keen to arrive at the scientific truths of Vedas discussed by him in his YOG SUTRAS. A lot many bluffs in Patanjali YOG have crept in due to many spiritualistic treatises on the subject which have reasons to be quite independent of Patanjali. The VASHISHTH YOG (वशिष्ठ योग) and BHASHYA SUTRAS (भाष्यसूत्र) by VYAS (व्यास) are two such treatises. But the translators till today tend to bracket Patanjali not only with these two but any discussion concerning YOG is attributed to Patanjali straightaway. Patanjali has thus become a brand name and his attempt to present Vedic concept of YOG, a completely scientific document has thus been irreparably mutilated and transformed into a spiritualistic dogma popularly known as YOGA. I shall be alluding to such impositions and explaining the damages done as and when the context demands. Presently we will be making use of the crucial facts of presentation to know the mechanics of the bluffs and myths of YOGA so that these can be straightaway discarded and nowhere allowed to interfere with our scientific enquiry. These myths are attractive like mythical MENKA (मेनका) and are capable of making any VISHWAMITRA (विश्वामित्र) go astray. There are so many myths about Yoga that a yogi acquires the status of a supernatural being that can perform unimaginable miracles which can never be verified. I remember a TV presentation in that the famous magician who in his earnest efforts to learn from these god men yogis coming to a very apt conclusion of branding them as “cheap tricksters” and his magic as an honorable art and profession. How true! Had there been only one such yogi endowed with such claimed super human powers in recent memory, he could have easily saved humanity from the ignominies of slavery, suppression, hunger, poverty, disease, exploitation and horrors of war or terrorism.. But removal of such blemishes is not considered a laudable miraculous aim by the bluffer in any yogi. The general population has been conditioned to accept that such blemishes are in all earnestness the results of again some bluff called destiny and a yogi is not supposed to interfere with that heavenly justice. The origin of all the bluffs and myths of YOGA can be traced primarily to the reasons given below:
A. Nomenclature of chapters of PATANJALI YOG SUTRAS
B. Mixing of parallel treatises on YOG with PATANJALI
Nomenclature of chapters has given birth to the following myths / bluffs:
1) DHYAN and SAMADHI are physical postures
2) YAM to SAMADHI is a linear approach
3) AIM of YOGA is to achieve SAMADHI
4) SAMADHI is the ultimate stage of DHYAN
Mixing of parallel treatises on YOG with that of Patanjali is responsible for the following myths / bluffs:
1) Various saleable packages of yoga
2) Awakening of KUNDALINI (कुण्डलिनी जागरण)
3) Myth of various supernatural powers of yoga and yogi
4) YOGA is a complete medical science
(A) NOMENCLATURE OF CHAPTERS
A nomenclature is used to suggest the content. So a false and contrived nomenclature can also be used for creating a suggestion of preconditioning, indoctrination, motivation or for that matter even for creation of interest. That is what the bluffers have been doing in all the ages since time immemorial and all in the name of intelligence. After all they have to auto-suggest also about their wisdom. In the case of PATANJALI YOG SUTRAS (पतंजलि योग सूत्र) it has been done so deftly that it has become a marvel in itself. The prevalent distribution and nomenclature of 195 SUTRAS of PATANJALI YOG SHASTRA is as under;
· 51 sutras in chapter- I as SAMADHI PAAD (समाधि पाद)
· 55 sutras in chapter-II as SADHNA PAAD (साधना पाद)
· 55 sutras in chapter-III as VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूतिपाद)
· 34 sutras in chapter-IV as KAIVALYA PAAD (कैवल्य पाद).
There is no evidence to suggest that these sutras were divided into chapters and definite titles were given by PATANJALI to these chapters. It appears to be the manipulation of convenience of some later period to reinforce the preconceived notion of proving YOG as a subject of spiritual pursuit. The spirit of scientific enquiry of any reader is thus guillotined in the very beginning and he starts looking for SAMADHI (समाधि), SADHNA (साधना), VIBHUTI (विभूति) and KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) with spiritual undertones and the meanings suggested to him The contents of each chapter are so vast and varied that to ascribe one arbitrarily chosen, narrowed down spiritual content head to the author can be at best the spiritualistic fundamentalism only with a view to achieving ulterior motive. To counter this misinformation a completely non-spiritualistic approach of straightaway rejecting the existing titles of the chapters and finding out new names which are appropriate with valid reasons is advocated. The suggestions are as follows:
· BASIC CONCEPTS or MAULIK SHABD PAAD (मौलिक शब्द पाद) for present 51 sutras of SAMADHI PAAD (समाधिपाद) and first 27 sutras of second chapter SADHNA PAAD (साधना पाद) thus having a total of 78 sutras.
· YOG EXPLAINED or YOG VYAKHYA PAAD (योग व्याख्या पाद) for present sutras II-28 to II-55 of SADHNA PAAD (साधना पाद) and first 8 sutras of third chapter VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद) thus having a total of 36 sutras
· PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS or VYAVAHARIK UPYOGITA PAAD (व्यवहारिक उपयोगिता पाद) for remaining 47 sutras III-9 to III-55 of VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद)
· CLARIFICATION OF DOUBTS or SHANKA SAMADHAN PAAD (शंका समाधान पाद) for the present KAIVALYA PAAD (कैवल्य पाद) sutras IV-1 to IV-34.
LIKELY EFFECTS OF CHANGED NOMENCLATURE
Before giving the reasons for this suggested change in names and regrouping of sutras for the chapters it will be worthwhile to analyze the overall effect of such an approach. A simple change in the names of the existing chapters will completely metamorphose the existing approach of not only any student of YOG but any enquiring mind in any field anywhere. The spiritual preconditioning of a student will vanish. Instead of searching for nonexistent spiritual SAMADHI (समाधि), KAIVALYA (कैवल्य), ISHWAR (ईश्वर), CHITTA (चित्त), VRITTI (वृत्ति) etc, or indulging in finding out stretched impossible equivalents in his language; an enquiring mind will straightaway go to the glossary contained in rechristened first chapter BASIC CONCEPTS, understand them as given by Patanjali, add to his dictionary and acknowledge them as heritage of humanity given to it by an yet to be explored civilization called VEDIC which happened to exist in Indian continent. All these words will then become unique additions to the human pool of knowledge of scientific concepts like cosmonaut, sputnik, broad band or any present day concept of any discipline and lose their dubious, arbitrary and contradictory meanings propagated by the spiritualists. I will discuss these concepts in the relevant contexts. Presently let me elaborate it with an example of a term explained as ISHWAR (ईश्वर) in the first chapter from sutras I-24 to I-27 and already discussed in this series under SECOND BLUFF- RELIGION (continued). If anyone begins with preconditioned spiritual approach under the heading SAMADHI (समाधि) of finding out ISHWAR (ईश्वर) he is bound to begin with a stretched equivalent like GOD, ALLAH or BHAGWAN etc and reach a concept as tutored to him that is anthromorphic and teleological. I have intentionally added the words GOD and ALLAH here knowing fully well that not many from the population believing in Christian GOD or Islamic ALLAH are likely to read Patanjali YOG SHASTRA and be influenced by some nomenclature of chapters which I only consider arbitrary and mischievously designed to spread imaginary spiritualism. But then not many from the population believing in BHAGWAN are also likely to read this treatise. Then where is the problem? The problem is that the genie (जिन्न) of spiritualism is not as recent as ISLAM or CHRISTIANITY. I may remind the readers an indisputable fact of history that the western world of believers in Christian GOD was first exposed to Vedic thought through a translation of UPNISHADS (उपनिषद) in PERSIAN language by DARA SHIKOH a believer in Islamic ALLAH and he was highly influenced by this bogey of spiritualism so ardently spread in his era by hundreds of UPNISHADS and all spiritualistic translations of Patanjali YOG SHASTRA. Even an UPNISHAD titled as ALLAH UPNISHAD and accredited to him is supposed to have been in circulation in his times. I mean spiritualism like any other bluff is as old as human curiosity itself and here again I would like to draw the attention of my readers to the statement in my first posting titled ‘YOGIC ENLIGHTENMENT’ that – “I, somehow feel that moment any knowledge is discovered the ignorance also comes into existence simultaneously” This human nature of converting discovered knowledge into bluffs and then believing bluffs to be actual knowledge; is one of the unique core areas of Vedic discovery of ‘self’(आत्म ज्ञान). It is again a unique discovery of Vedic knowledge of self only that human beings irrespective of whether they have studied VEDAS or not, are capable of coming out of this predicament. As long as this does not happen such a mind irrespective of he himself studying Patanjali or being imparted this knowledge by someone already conditioned is not likely to reach a concept of ISHWAR (ईश्वर) as KNOWLEDGE in spite of the word KNOWLEDGE used and reinforced again and again with its attributes of ‘principles of existence and organization’ as given in Vedic GAYATRI MANTRA and explained by Patanjali in the above mentioned sutras. Even if he happens to reach, he will still tend to interpret them in spiritual terms only. On the other hand a student of chapter of BASIC CONCEPTS (मौलिक शब्द पाद) is most likely to absorb the scientific content as explained, simply because he has not been preconditioned by a spiritual heading SAMADHI PAAD (समाधि पाद). That way a complete scientific mind set is born which is willing to question, experiment and accept. Such minds if interested in inventions, administration, and management or learning will immediately find the basics in third chapter of PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS (व्यवहारिक उपयोगिता पाद), which they can never find in the present illusory VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद). I will discuss the details of it under Myth of Various Supernatural Powers of Yog and Yogi. Such minds will undoubtedly go to the methodology of finding out the basics in second chapter YOG EXPLAINED (योग व्याख्या पाद) and try to understand all eight parts as explained by Patanjali and implement them as such. No such inquisitive mind will ever find a trace of ethereal spiritualism. He will then find only the hard facts beckoning to ameliorate the conditions of suffering humanity and it will become a reprehensible idea for him to advance fate, destiny or heavenly justice etc as excuses for inaction. That is what YOG is all about.
REASONS FOR RENAMING THE CHAPTERS
BASIC CONCEPTS (मौलिक शब्द पाद)
This chapter appears to go by the name of SAMADHI PAAD (समाधि पाद) for a very odd reason that it finishes with the word SAMADHI (समाधि) in the last sutra (I-51). Patanjali could never have endorsed that his first chapter should be called SAMADHI PAAD (समाधि पाद) only. Because he had also covered the definitions and explanations of YOG (योग), VRITTI (वृत्ति), CHITTA (चित्त), PRAMAN (प्रमाण), VIPARYA (विपर्य), VIKALP (विकल्प), NIDRA (निद्रा), SMRITI (स्मृति), NIRODH (निरोध), ABHYAS (अभ्यास), VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य), STHITI (स्थिति), TRISHNA (तृष्णा), PRAGYA (प्रज्ञा), VIRAM PRATYA (विराम प्रत्यय), BHAV PRATYA (भवप्रत्यय) ISHWAR (ईश्वर), CHITTA VIKSHEP (चित्त विक्षेप), PRAN (प्राण), SAVITARK (सवितर्क) NIRVITARK (निर्वितर्क), SAMAPATTI (समापत्ति), SABIJ SAMADHI (सबीज समाधि) and NIRBIJ SAMADHI (निर्बीज समाधि). All these and some more concepts from second chapter sutra II-1 to sutra II-27 must be absolutely essential in Patanjali eyes before he explains in this chapter of his YOG SHASTRA the Vedic concept of YOG- ‘A unique technique of skipping bluff by acquisition, application and administration of knowledge’. The first concept is KRIYA YOG (क्रिया योग) in Sutra II-1 that has been strangely mentioned only without any definition or explanation. So it must be a prevalent practice of his age and understood as having three parts viz TAP (तप), SWADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय) and ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वरप्रणिधान) which are defined and clarified later on as sub-parts of one part NIYAM (नियम) of main doctrine ASHTANG YOG (अष्टांग योग). The other concepts are KLESH (क्लेश) with its five varieties and four states of existence, the principle of relativity (संयोग) due to DRASHTA (द्रष्टा) and DRISHYA (दृश्य),cause and effect (हेतु फल), perceiver (दृग दृष्टि) and the perceived (दर्शन दृश्य), PRATI PRASAVA (प्रतिप्रसव), KAIVALYA (कैवल्य), HAAN (हान), VIVEK KHYATI (विवेक ख्याति) etc So sutra II-1 to sutra II-27 should go to first chapter of BASIC CONCEPTS. The first chapter thus should contain 78 sutras for having similar content which is irrefutable and a valid reason for recognition i.e. a group name, the basic concepts which have been defined, explained or just mentioned by using current words of his age. This approach will also give an inquisitive mind the freedom to question which has been completely denied by a spiritualist in the name of a bluff called faith masqueraded as higher reason. The questions will be like as follow. Why a concept has been introduced here? Has it got any relevance with his main concept? If not, is it a later day insertion by some spiritualist? Why TAP (तप), SWADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय) and ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वर प्रणिधान) have been used as words of current use in sutra (II-1)? If he accepts these words as standard here needing no clarification then why does he define and clarify them later in sutras II-43 to II-45 pin pointedly under his main concept? The obvious answer is that KRIYA YOG (क्रिया योग) in which context these words have been referred to in sutra II-1 and as being understood currently have nothing to do with Vedic concepts of these words that he is defining in sutras II-43 to II-45. Such questioning will automatically help in arriving at scientific purport of YOG.
YOG EXPLAINED (योग व्याख्या पाद)
The reason for giving this name is that it contains only one subject matter YOG with its eight parts thoroughly explained by the author. The present name SADHNA PAAD (साधना पाद) for second chapter lacks credence for two simple reasons. First the word SADHNA (साधना) has not been used anywhere in this chapter by Patanjali. So it is not fair to force the plea that the author meant only SADHNA (साधना) in this chapter. Secondly, here also Patanjali introduces the reader to certain concepts in SUTRAS 1 to 27 which he considers essential to be understood before he introduces his main concept of the eight parts (अष्टांग) of YOG in SUTRA II-29.The second chapter, therefore, should begin from sutra II-28 wherein the concept of YOG is introduced and first 27 sutras should go to the first chapter of BASIC CONCEPTS as explained above. After enumerating eight parts of YOG in sutra II- 29, he goes on to explain first five of them in details in second chapter from sutras 30 to 55. Then he is made to switch over to third chapter wherein he first deals with the remaining three parts of ASHTANG YOG (अष्टांग योग).But still the experts don’t consider it an extension of SADHNA (साधना) of second chapter and without giving a thought to this anomaly or may be a sound reason of overlapping prefer to give the name VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद) to the new chapter. This overlapping of the same content in two chapters can be easily rectified by including sutras III-1 to III-8 in second chapter renamed as YOGA EXPLAINED (योग व्याख्या पाद). With this title in mind a student now knows that he is trying to find out about YOG and its eight parts as Patanjali found them in Vedas and not some imaginary spiritual SADHNA which the earlier name suggested. For example take the case of ASAN (आसन), a part out of eight parts discussed by Patanjali in the following sutra:
(II-46) STHIR SUKHAM ASANAM
This is the one and only sutra in Patanjali Yog Shastra about ASAN (आसन) and it explains fully the concept. A student with a new name approach for this chapter will never see its meaning as SADHNA of as many physical postures ASANS (आसन) in this world as the number of animal species or the cleansing processes like SHATKARM (षटकर्म) etc as propagated by spiritualistic approach. He will give due credit for this idea of numbers etc. to whom it rightfully belongs i.e. HATHYOG (हठयोग). In fact this part of YOG has been publicized so much by YOGA experts that a sizeable population considers perfection in as many posture formulations of body only as YOG. It is being sold also that way. A sick person is doing it for getting relief and is advised by self certified masters who do not have any knowledge of physiology or physiotherapy to do a particular ASAN for a particular disease and to not to do such and such for such and such ailment. If some harm comes to the patient that is most likely to happen due to inbuilt quackery, he is advised and convinced in grim tones that no SADHNA should be performed without the able guidance and presence of a teacher (गुरु).If someone happens to commit the mistake of reminding the quack element even in a teacher, all hell is let loose and he is looked down upon as ignorant who does not even know that spiritualized YOGA is a higher knowledge than ordinary physiotherapy or physiology of medical science. A healthy man who is a rarity due to environmental reasons and various insecurities indulges in some ASAN (आसन) postures for showmanship and in SADHNA (साधना) of some like PADMASAN (पद्मासन) etc for a hidden desire somewhere of getting sudden encounter DARSHAN (दर्शन)of that ALMIGHTY and fulfilling all his needs. The latter part of hidden desire is applicable to sick people also. I, somehow feel all such people to be sick who expect something just by sitting or standing in some physical posture without using their hands, feet or head for putting in any effort. The school children are doing these physical exercises on full stomach because of some supposedly political mileage the subject YOGA was introduced as part of curriculum. That way everybody who is doing ASAN becomes a YOGI instantly and a lot of them start inventing their own varieties and giving them arbitrary high sounding names. YOGA and ASAN have thus become synonyms. A student of new nomenclature YOGA EXPLAINED (योग व्याख्या पाद) will never look for any SADHNA of ASANS in this chapter for the word does not exist for him because it does not exist for the original author also. He will understand this sutra as Patanjali would have liked him to understand. Let me dramatize once again. That’s how Patanjali would have explained it if some time machine could have thrown him into the present. “I am amazed at you people’s ingenuity. I used only two words STHIR (स्थिर) and SUKHAM (सुखम) for defining ASAN (आसन) and you have found out innumerable postures for the word ASAN (आसन) without even caring for these two words. I have not mentioned a single ASAN (आसन) in these sutras as per your specifications. I agree the word ASAN (आसन) in a different context does mean what all you have attributed to it but in Vedic Yog which I have set out to explain it means only STHIR (स्थिर) and SUKHAM (सुखम) with all their physical and mental undertones. As per my presentation technique both these are common words in current use meaning stability and comfort. I have already defined stability in sutra (I-14). Hence there is no point in defining it again here. It is again common knowledge that for any job the most comfortable physical posture is essential for the best results. With this background it is Vedic knowledge that you cannot make or achieve any objective (धारणा) unless your mental and physical postures (आसन) are stable (स्थिर) and comfortable (सुखम). Remember I have already enumerated in sutra (I-30) the inability to make an objective (अलब्धभूमिकत्त्व) or the inability to stick to an objective (अनवस्थितत्त्व) as indicators of a troubled mind (चित्त विक्षेप). I have also pinpointed five physical symptoms of such a mind through routine words in next sutra (I-31). These are unhappiness (दुःख), evil disposition (दौर्मनस्य), twitching and trembling (अंगमेजयत्व), abnormal inhaling (श्वास) and exhaling (प्रश्वास). Can such a mind take decisions? It can reach impetuous or impulsive conclusions only. So create conditions in which you feel comfortable and ensure these are stable. Yes, I mean to say if you think air conditioned environment is required for a particular action, don’t hesitate to create it but ensure it is stable. And here I knew that you would distort even such a routine word stable (स्थिर) also simply because of inbuilt and more attractive human nature of BLUFFING and considering it intelligence. Therefore, I defined STABILITY (स्थिरता) having three ingredients in sutra (I-14). The stability (दृढभूमिः) is complete when there is presence of ‘long time’ (दीर्घकाल), ‘every time’ (नैरन्तर्य) and ‘respect’ (सत्कारऽऽसेवितः). The respect can be for self, humanity at large and environment only. I am sorry to comment that in stability you are looking for ‘long time’ and ‘every time’ alright but you have not yet evolved to the level of considering respect for self, humanity or environment as essential ingredient of stability if you really want to achieve the “long time” and “every time” aspects of it. For you the selfishness and thus exploitation are the primary aims. Otherwise you wouldn’t have considered the emission of CFC as a matter of quota for developed, developing and underdeveloped worlds and introduce ‘carbon credits’ as a marvelous idea. It is a lip service only not to assuage the hurt humanity but to gloat over you ego and to the possible lurking fear of your extinction. The more important thing is that if you are interested in understanding the scientific purport of YOG or its any part as discussed by me in this chapter you must understand the basic concepts first as I have discussed before espousing the basics of main concept YOG as I found it in Vedas”. Now it will be an interesting exercise to apply these three simple routine ingredients of a routine word STABILITY (स्थिरता) in any other field of human activity. The definition is so universal in application that it is just not possible to achieve any stability in any relations of political, social, economic, diplomatic or any other nature if the ingredient of respect is missing. All relations become unstable. If this is not knowledge about such a word of common use then what is! If this universality is not science then what is! I can assure you that such a conclusion cannot be drawn through spiritualistic SADHNA (साधना) of an ASAN (आसन).
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS (व्यवहारिक उपयोगिता पाद)
The existing name of this chapter is VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद). Here again the word VIBHUTI (विभूति) meaning plenty of wealth, riches and boon of superhuman powers, has not been used anywhere by the author. Rather, in Sutra III-37 which is of considerable debate and confusion for the advocates of spiritualism, Patanjali opines that only partly deranged people (व्युत्थाने) can interpret these pursuits as achievements (सिद्धयः).So let these remain practical human pursuits only which Patanjali has just put in index form as examples for guidance. Don’t fool the people by suggesting that such boons (विभूति) will accrue to them if they indulge in such and such spiritualistic practices. Or produce a single spiritualist yogi as proof who can demonstrate in flesh and blood any boon indexed by PATANJALI in so called VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद), say by just deciphering Mohenjo-Daro script or by inventing a new technique of hieroglyphics. I can assure any spiritualist that by doing so he will not be interfering with any heavenly justice while in a very oft quoted unverifiable sole example of SHANKARACHARYA, a confirmed interference with Godly dispensation is clearly visible when he keeps a dead king AMRU alive for three more months by entering his body to have his initiation in sexual knowledge. All that has actually happened by such a fallacious propagation of VIBHUTI PAAD (विभूति पाद) is acquisition of immense unaccounted wealth and riches (विभूति) by a few in every age by simply fooling others. On the other hand simple scientific facts emerge, if these are considered as fields of practical application (व्यवहारिक उपयोगिता पाद) of a technique that has been discussed in second chapter renamed and to be understood as YOGA EXPLAINED (योग व्याख्या पाद). I shall be dealing in details the so called boons as propagated by the spiritualists and the only possible conclusions of practical applications as thought of by Patanjali under the heading “Myth of various supernatural powers of YOGA and yogi.”
CLARIFICATION OF DOUBTS (शंका समाधान पाद)
The present name of this chapter KAIVALYA PAAD (कैवल्य पाद) again appears to be based like first chapter on the occurrence of the word KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) in the last sutra (IV-34). Patanjali couldn’t have endorsed such a nomenclature for first he had already introduced this word in so called SADHNA PAAD (साधना पाद) in sutra II-25 with its proper definition as per his presentation technique and secondly, he has used in this chapter many other words explaining the probable queries regarding already introduced different concepts in the first chapter to be understood as the CHAPTER OF BASIC CONCEPTS as explained above.. Let me dramatize once again his explanations about KAIVALYA (कैवल्य). “I appreciate you people for trying to understand the concept of YOG by classifying my sutras into four chapters for convenience sake. But your nomenclature is so unrealistic that VEDIC YOG (वैदिक योग) has lost its scientific radiance completely and acquired a false sheen of some concocted concept of spiritualistic YOGA (योगा).How can you name some chapter of your imagination as KAIVALYA PAAD only and force a common man to aim for some imaginary KAIVALYA of your definition? Have a look again at the definition of this word which I have given in your second chapter only and not in fourth chapter of your imagination. In fourth chapter I have referred to the word KAIVALYA in sutras 26 and 34 more in the context of clarification of VIVEK KHYATI (विवेक ख्याति) and CHITT (चित्त), the concept I had promised to clarify in the very beginning in sutra I-2 as and when the context demanded. So the name CLARIFICATION OF DOUBTS (शंका समाधान पाद) is more appropriate than KAIVALYA PAAD. Now look at the definition of KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) as I have given in your second chapter and just compare it with any clarification given in any sutra of chapter of your nomenclature i.e. KAIVALYA PAAD (कैवल्य पाद). I can assure you that you will not find any clarification of KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) in this chapter as I have already defined it in II-25 and further explained this concept threadbare in sutras III-50 and III-55 of third chapter. So the nomenclature KAIVALYA PAAD (कैवल्य पाद) is inappropriate and creates confusion. To make it explicit let me go through the mechanics of definition of KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) with you once again”
(II-25) TAD ABHAVAT SANYOG ABHAVO HANAM TAD DRISHEH KAIVALYAM
(II-25) तदभावात्संयोगाभावो हानं तद् दृशेः कैवल्यम
“To define KAIVALYA कैवल्य in this sutra I have used TAD तद, ABHAV अभाव and DRISHE दृशे as routine words of current use which do not require any definition or clarification and SANYOG संयोग as a defined word and HAAN हान as explained word. The simple meaning is that the absence ABHAVAT अभाव of THAT (TAD तद) the thing that I have mentioned in previous sutra II-24 i.e. AVIDYA (अविद्या) will lead to awareness of SANYOG (संयोग). The absence of SANYOG (संयोग) will result into a loss (HAAN हान). Any individual whosoever happens to realize this fact is seer (DRISHE दृशेः) of KAIVALYA कैवल्य.To put it differently, KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) is realization of that loss which happens due to ignorance / bluff (AVIDYA अविद्या).It is an individual (DRISHE दृशेः) achievement. To avoid this loss the only recommended solution is uninterrupted (AVIPLAPVA अविप्लव) pursuit of awareness of discretion (VIVEK KHYATI विवेक ख्याति) as given in next sutra II-26. Is it not ironical that people don’t want to think even about the loss they are incurring or damage they are causing to the environment and the humanity at large? To arrive at the above definition of KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) consider the references given below”
“AVIDYA अविद्या has been introduced in sutra II-3, explained in sutra II-4, defined with its components in sutras II-5 to II-9 and advised to be rectified in sutras II-10 and II-11 by the processes of PRATIPRASAVA प्रतिप्रसव-introduced in sutra II-10 and CLARIFIED in chapter IV-34 and DHYAN-initially referred as an opinion in sutra I-39 introduced in sutra II-29 as one part of ASHTANG YOG अष्टांग योग and defined in sutra III-2 as a technical word. I have introduced the concept of SANYOG (संयोग) in sutra II-17 and defined in sutra II-23.”
Besides the fact of not explaining the concept of KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) in this chapter as per spiritualists’ expectations, Patanjali has clarified many doubts which can agitate the minds of students of YOG about the various concepts. Though through his presentation technique of sequential and predictable thought process and choice of words he has explained the relevant concepts in the beginning only yet various questions that have been clarified in this chapter are:
· Do birth (JANM जन्म), drugs (AUSHADH औषध), hymns (MANTRA मंत्र) and penance (तप) help in achievement of objective? (Sutra IV-1, 2, 3).
· When does invention become a dangerous pursuit? ( Sutra IV-4 )
· Why are individuals different? Sutra ( IV-5 )
· Is there any specific trait of human beings that has serious consequences? ( Sutra IV-6 )
· How can YOG help in overcoming the consequences? Sutra (IV-7)
· How does memory become indestructible? (Sutra IV-8, 9, 10 )
· What are the principal factors responsible for eternal existence of innumerable VRITTI in human beings? (Sutra IV- 11, 12, 13)
· What are the various forms and role of CHITT? ( Sutra IV-14 to 23)
· How to avoid ignorance / bluffing? (Sutra IV-24 to 30)
· How to direct genetic mutation? (Sutra IV-31 to 34)
MYTHS / BLUFFS CREATED BY FALSE NOMENCLATURE
SAMADHI (समाधि) is the most misunderstood and in a way most abused word of YOGA. An absolutely scientific concept has been converted into a mysterious never achievable mirage. The bluffs and their resolutions serialized below will conclusively bear out this fact.
MYTH -1- DHYAN AND SAMADHI ARE PHYSICAL POSTURES
Since Spiritualism is a nonexistent concept that has been manipulated to exist it tends to interpret every concept as a kind of inaction if ultimate deliverance again an imaginary concept is to be achieved by human beings. The concepts of DHYAN (ध्यान) and SAMADHI (समाधि) in YOGA have thus been interpreted as physical postures only.
DHYAN AND SAMADHI cannot be physical postures. Only three categories of people can consider these as such:
· Those who have got plenty of time at their disposal.
· Those who are filthily rich and don’t have to worry about monetary problems anytime.
· Those who depend upon DHYAN and SAMADHI only as their vocation for their survival and bread and butter.
The people in the above categories when bracketed become such a powerful and influential group that a common man is awe struck and starts getting vicarious satisfaction in following them and accepting them as role model. In the hope of achieving some miracle of SAMADHI he also starts sitting and standing in some body poses duly concentrating on his pointed nose, centre of forehead, breath, candle or any object advised by his mentors. Or he involves himself into such silly practices of getting a sacred thread tied thinking it to be safety armour (रक्षा कवच), offering sacrifices (बलि देना), and wearing charms (गंडा तावीज बंधवाना) etc. In other words it amounts to getting completely enmeshed into ignorance. And as per Patanjali IGNORANCE (अविद्या) is the main cause of all types of sorrow (क्लेशाः)
(II-3) AVIDYA ASMITA RAGA DWESHA ABHINIVESHA KLESHA
(II-3) अविद्याऽस्मितारागद्वेषाऽभिनिवेशाः क्लेशाः
Can Patanjali ever advocate such body postures as path to enlightenment? This is what he has to say about DHYAN (ध्यान)
(III-2) TATRA PRATYAYAIKTANTA DHYANAM
(III-2) तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्
“To define DHYAN (ध्यान) I have used three words of routine nature i.e. TATRA (तत्र), PRATYAYA (प्रत्यय) and EKTANTA (एकतानता) meaning ‘that’, ‘knowledge’ and ‘single minded’ respectively. It simply means that the ‘knowledge’ of never losing sight of or being ‘single minded’ about ‘THAT’ is DHYAN. Obviously ‘THAT’ (TATRA) is, therefore, the key word that joins this sutra with the previous sutra and. TATRA (तत्र) stands for DHARNA (धारणा) only which I have defined thus:
(III-1) DESHBANDHASH CHITTASYA DHARNA
(III-1) देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा
Here again for defining DHARNA (धारणा) I have used two common words DESH (देश) meaning ‘field’ and BANDH (बन्ध) meaning ‘demarcation’ The overall meaning is that any objective has to be clearly demarcated. There should not be any duplication or confusion. And I can assure you that I have nowhere advised to set your objective (धारणा) as nose, centre of forehead, breath or a candle light to achieve something and close your eyes. You have clearly been duped into believing so. This is definitely an affront to the core idea of diligence and industrious application involved in any pursuit.
MYTH-2- YAM TO SAMADHI IS A LINEAR APPROACH
A frequent and very common bluff spread by the YOGA (योगा) experts is that it is a very rigorous schedule beginning from YAM (यम्) and ending at SAMADHI (समाधि). Consequently all the eight parts of YOG (योग) mentioned by PATANJALI have been arraigned in one serial order and twisted to mean that the next stage cannot be achieved unless the previous is mastered. Thus YOG (योग) is being forced to be accepted as an awe inspiring concept with a linear order for execution purpose which is next to impossible to achieve by any mortal on one hand and places on the other hand all the pseudo practitioners on a pedestal from where they can easily fool the gullible.
RESOLUTION - 1
The first mentioned part of YOG (योग) is YAM (यम्) which in turn has five sub-parts viz SATYA (सत्य), AHINSA (अहिंसा), ASTEYA (अस्तेय), BRAHMCHARYA (ब्रह्मचर्य) and APRIGRAH (अपरिग्रह). As per this bluff , one has to master all these five to reach the second mentioned part of YOG (योग) i.e. NIYAM (नियम), which again has five sub-parts viz SHAUCH (शौच), SANTOSH (संतोष), TAP (तप), SWADHYAYA (स्वाध्याय) and ISHWAR PRANIDHAN (ईश्वर प्रणिधान). Even a complete life time is insufficient to master any one out of these as these are not skills but entire philosophy of life that is put to test every now and then in each individual’s life time. All these form the part of that DHARM (धर्म) meaning duties (कर्त्तव्य) as explained in SECOND BLUFF- RELIGION. And the real test is crisis time for which the great poet TULSIDAS says, “धीरज धर्म मित्र अरु नारी, आपद काल परखिये चारी”. (By the way a lot many are likely to fault here the use of the word NARI (नारी ) by interpreting it single directionally due to a kind of bluffs of recent origin only known as ‘male chauvinism’ and ‘equality’. They tend to forget completely that only a ‘woman’ and a friend who can be of either sex have been bracketed with virtues of patience DHEERAJ-धीरज and duty DHARM- धर्म by the poet) It is such a master stroke of bluffers that an impossible, non-existent linear order of application in eight parts of YOG (योग) has been attributed to that master who has not only defined and explained the concepts of sequential order (KRAM क्रम) and result (PARINAM परिणाम) in sutra III-15 but also put into practice in presentation of his YOG SUTRAS (योग सूत्र). Had there been a sequential order in execution of these eight parts Patanjali could have easily inserted one more sutra with such an explanation.
Patanjali has rather classified these eight parts of YOG (योग) in two groups thereby indicating a holistic approach:
· BAHIRANG- meaning “external parts” of YOG(योग) comprising YAM (यम्), NIYAM (नियम), ASAN (आसन), PRANAYAM (प्राणायाम) and PRATYAHAR (प्रत्याहार)
· ANTRANG- meaning “internal parts” of YOG (योग) comprising of DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN (ध्यान) and SAMADHI (समाधि) – TRAYAM ANTRANG PURVEBHYA (त्र्यमन्तरंग पूर्वेभ्यः) Sutra (III-7) meaning these three are internal.
In holistic approach the parts in BAHIRANG (बहिरंग) group have not been joined by any conjunction giving any suggestion that first a complete mastery over one is to be achieved before proceeding to the next. Each part has been defined and explained independently as per Patanjali technique of presentation. The parts of ANTRANG have been joined logically by conjunctions TATRA (तत्र) and TADAIV (तदैव) in quick succession in sutras III-2 and III-3
(III-3) TADAIV ARTHMATRABHASAM SWARUPSHUNYAMIV SAMADHI
(III-3) तदैवार्थमात्रनिर्भासंस्वरुपशून्यमिव समाधिः
TADAIV (तदैव) means ‘then only’. So ‘then only’ is when? The answer is when the condition i.e. DHYAN (ध्यान) mentioned in previous sutra III-2 is fully met. The relationship of DHYAN (ध्यान) with DHARNA (धारणा) has already been explained above under RESOLUTION -2 of MYTH -1. As there can be no DHYAN (ध्यान) possible without DHARNA (धारणा), similarly there can be no SAMADHI (समाधि) possible without DHYAN (ध्यान).In layman’s language it simply means that you cannot achieve anything unless you decide what to achieve, stick to that decision and work wholeheartedly for that decision. There is an overt logical sequence here but it is not mentioned anywhere or it is logical to mention that if you happen to decide “what to achieve” it will automatically RESULT into “sticking to that decision” also. Similarly sticking to a decision cannot automatically RESULT into “working wholeheartedly for that decision”. There are many slips between lips and cup. These are all independent actions which are inter-related alright but are not the RESULTS of one another. The spiritualists have been able to propagate successfully that:
a) The arbitrary conversion of overt inter-relation of ANTARANG (अन्तरंग) parts as mentioned by Patanjali into a bluff of successive RESULTS
b) Extending this inter-relation of ANTARANG (अन्तरंग) parts to BAHIRANG (बहिरंग) parts also where the inter-relation is neither overt nor so mentioned by Patanjali but still an arbitrary conversion of these parts into a bluff of successive RESULTS.
MYTH -3- AIM OF YOGA (योगा) IS TO ACHIEVE SAMADHI
The above mentioned bluff of linear approach has given birth to too many related myths and bluffs. Since SAMADHI (समाधि) happens to be the last in linear dispensation, it is certified to be the only desirable aim of YOGA (योगा).
Nothing could be more illogical than this myth. SAMADHI (समाधि) is just one out of the eight parts of YOG. In Sutra II-29 all the eight parts are clearly enumerated and nowhere is it mentioned that one part is superior to the other:
(II-29) YAM NIYAM ASAN PRANAYAM PRATYAHAR DHARNA DHYAN SAMADHAYO ASHTAVANGANI
(II-29) यम् नियमासन प्राणायाम प्रत्याहार धारणाध्यान समाधयो अष्टा वन्गानि
It is putting cart before the horse if the above bluff is to be accepted. It is logical to conclude that the aim of SAMADHI (समाधि) along with seven other parts is to achieve YOG and not the other way round. The aim of spiritualistic YOGA (योगा) can be to achieve some imaginary spiritualistic SAMADHI (समाधि). It just can’t be the aim of Vedic YOG (योग) wherein SAMADHI is just one part of the entire process of YOG which is highly action oriented and does not have any place for idleness and lethargy.
YOG (योग) is a process to achieve NIRODH (निरोधः) as clearly mentioned in its very definition given in the beginning in Sutra I-2
(I-2)YOGASH CHITT VRITTI NIRODH
(I-2) - योगश्चित्तवृत्तिनिरोधः
NIRODH (निरोधः) is a process of practicing to perfection in “what is to be done” known as ABHYAS (अभ्यास) and “what is not to be done” known as VAIRAGYA (वैराग्य) as given in sutra I-12
(I-12) ABHYAS VAIRAGYABHYAM TANNIRODH
(I-12) (अभ्यास्वैराग्याभ्यां तन्निरोधः)
The propriety and decision about an action is executed through due consideration and accomplishment (ANUSHTHAN अनुष्ठान) of all the eight parts of YOG (SAMADHI inclusive) as given in sutra II-28 which will inculcate the facility of discretionary judgment (VIVEK KHYATI विवेक ख्याति)
(II-28) YOGANG ANUSHTHANAD ASHUDDHI KSHAYA GYAN DIPTIRA VIVEK KHYATI
(II-28) योगांगानुष्ठानादशुद्धिक्षये ज्ञानदीप्तिराविवेकख्यातेः
The spiritualist have equated this discretionary power (VIVEK KHYATI विवेक ख्याति) with SAMADHI (समाधि) completely negating the action dominated process of SAMADHI and substituting it with a body posture
MYTH -4- SAMADHI IS THE ULTIMATE STAGE OF DHYAN
It is another related bluff born out of linear approach with the sole aim of appropriating distinctive status to a person who has practiced to remain idle in body and mind for a long time in a particular body posture and thus deemed to have acquired miraculous powers which can never be demonstrated or put to test. To remain idle, according to Patanjali is actually a symptom of troubled mind (CHITT VIKSHEP- चित्त विक्षेप) that cannot even make an objective.
SAMADHI (समाधि) and DHYAN (ध्यान) are two exclusive parts of YOG like the remaining six as enumerated in Sutra II-29 and each defined conclusively. Then how can one part SAMADHI (समाधि) be the advanced stage of another part DHYAN (ध्यान)?
DHYAN (ध्यान) and SAMADHI (समाधि) are the two most ill explained and consequently the most misunderstood and confusing concepts of spiritualistic YOGA. This confusion actually helps in overall design of perpetration of bluffs. The confusion is so much ingrained in our thought process that the only correct explanation given by the author himself and which is down to earth simple, is looked down upon as simplistic and with suspicion. The only correct and simple explanation about DHYAN (ध्यान) as a part (ANG) of YOG as given by Patanjali in his Sutra III-2, has already been explained above. To remind, it simply means ‘sticking to an objective or a decision’. Now about SAMADHI (समाधि), Patanjali has to say;
(III-3) TADEVARTHMATRANIRBHASAM SWARUPSHUNYAMIV SAMADHI
(III-3) तदैवार्थमात्रनिर्भासंस्वरुपशून्यमिव समाधिः
“To explain SAMADHI as per my presentation technique I have used all routine words of common use which do not need any definition. The meanings are given in brackets: TADEV (then, that, stands for DHYAN of the previous Sutra), ARTH (meaning, purport), MATRA (only), NIRBHASAM (guided by the light of, never losing sight of), SWARUP (your bodily existence), and SHUNYAM (completely devoted as if nonexistent in metaphorical sense) EV (too). Overall it means that SAMADHI (समाधि) is nothing but the execution part now, working wholeheartedly, always guided by the spirit of the objective for realization. I must add here to always remember that any execution (SAMADHI-समाधि here) cannot be fruitful if it is not comprehensive. It is not comprehensive if it is devoid of “decision of what to achieve” (DHARNA-धारणा) and “sticking to that decision” (DHYAN ध्यान).Such efforts will always go waste. It will amount to beating about the bush (धूल में लाठी) only. That’s why in my next Sutra III-4 only I have bracketed these three together and given the name SANYAM. (संयम)
(III-4) TRAYAMEKATRA SANYAM
(III-4) त्रयमेकत्र संयमः