SUTRA (III-22) – MIRACLES OF YOG
VERSUS THE BLUFFS OF YOGA
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
BLUFF OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE OF DEATH
The Patanjali sutra quoted as authority for spreading this bluff is:
(III-22) SOPKRAMAM NIRUPKRAMAM CHA KARM (first part) TATSANYAMAD (second part) APRANTGYANAM (third part) ARISHTEBHYO VA (first part)
(III-22) सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमादपरान्तज्ञानमरिष्टेभ्यो वा
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC TRANSLATION
By MEDITATING / CONCENTRATING on the fast and slow speeds of action and opposite signals a yogi is blessed with the prior knowledge of the place and time of his death.
BLUFF PROPAGATED – A Yogi’s ability to know time and place of his death
The spiritualistic translation suffers from the following infirmities:
• In explaining the routine words ‘the actions / happenings (KARM कर्म) indicating the rate of fast speed (SOP KRAM सोप क्रम) and the rate of slow speed (NIRUP KRAM निरुपक्रम), the spiritualists have stretched these terms to mean ‘the actions of the previous birth that have determined and already fixed the unchallengeable span of the present life’ and a yogi’s capability of knowing them. Simple routine words have thus been converted into unverifiable spiritual jargons.
• Similarly the simple word ARISHT (अरिष्ट) meaning other ‘two opposite operatives responsible for deciding the rate (KRAM क्रम)’ like ‘high and low’, ‘large and small’, ‘heavy and light’, ‘long and short’ etc. just on the lines of fast and slow already mentioned in the sutra; has been converted into a spiritual jargon of omens and portends as indicators of impending death and a yogi’s unique power of interpreting them. The most probable and obvious meanings of ARISHT indicating known and unknown variables of temperature, pressure and time etc were thus lost permanently in the labyrinths of spiritualism and so the will to discover them.
• A compound word APRANT (अपरांत) denoting physical expanse related to longevity and antiquity of an object has been split to mean place and time of death as it suits the design of spreading a bluff.
• The spiritualistic translation being word to word and only made grammatically complete sentence, gives the impression of a boon alright that is never realizable being impractical and illogical.
• The word SANYAM संयम has three parts and contexts indicating a complete process. All three contexts of SANYAM संयम have been ignored
• The first context TRAYAMEKTRA त्रयमेकत्र of the word SANYAM संयम as given by Patanjali in sutra III-4 is completely ignored and it has been substituted by a spurious translation MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION
• MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION remains an idle, effortless technique as advised by the system of YOGA योगा one believes in as discussed earlier and nowhere recommended by Patanjali.
• The second context as given in Sutra III-5 that SANYAM संयम leads to that INSIGHT (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) of getting aware of some sequence (KRAM क्रम); is completely skipped.
• It jumps straight from some imaginary, effortless MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION on first part of the sutra to the achievements mentioned in third part of the sutra. It is conveniently forgotten that it is the INSIGHT (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) of sequence (KRAM क्रम) only that may further lead to the understanding of the third part of any sutra.
• No effort has been made in any translation to take into consideration the third context as given by Patanjali in sutra III-6 as the spiritualists are allergic to any other knowledge. The third context mentions that this understanding of the third part of any sutra can now be applied for further achievements and results to be discovered and invented in any field of either SABIJ (सबीज) or NIRBIJ (निर्बीज) knowledge respectively (sutra III-7 and sutra III-8).
• Lastly, this translation does not take into consideration the methodology given by Patanjali in sutra III-16 for understanding any boon sutra. The first part of any boon sutra has got to be related to TRYA PARINAM (त्रय परिणाम) i.e. the first part of sutra (III-16). Otherwise a specific objective (DHARNA धारणा) that is the essential part of SANYAM संयम cannot be formed
MIRACLE AS MEANT BY PATANJALI
In Patanjali’s approach there is no room for translation. It has got to be detailed explanation only as the sutras are in pithy form. The explanation must be in the context as Patanjali suggests and not arbitrary as followed by various contradictory versions of spiritualized YOGA. Besides the contextual words SANYAM and PARINAM as mentioned in sutras III-1 to III-15 and are common to all the so called ‘boon sutras’, Patanjali frequently refers to those contextual words that he has either already defined or in the process of explaining; like CHITT, SATTVA, PURUSH, VRITTI, VIVEK and KAIVALYA etc. The same sutra gives the entirely logical and practical approach to the subject if the contexts of SANYAM and PARINAM as explained by Patanjali are duly kept in mind and the infirmities mentioned above are not permitted to creep in. The explanation should be based on the following standards:
STANDARDS SET BY PATANJALI FOR EXPLANATION
The contexts, without which the explanation of the sutra as Patanjali meant cannot be arrived at, are as under:
• THE GENERAL AREAS OF VEDIC KNOWLEDGE from which the subject of study has been chosen – STUDY OF ELEMENTS i.e. (BRAHM GYAN) under which the properties of various elements are to be studied. (as per sutra III-13)
• CHOICE OF A SUBJECT FOR STUDY – THE PROCESS (KRAM क्रम) OF ANY HAPPENING OR ACTION (KARM कर्म). Patanjali has clearly mentioned the study of two areas in the first part of this sutra which must be a prerequisite to understand the process. These are the SPEED and the FACTORS (ARISHT अरिष्ट) responsible for determining the fast (SOP KRAM सोप क्रम) and slow (NIRUP KRAM निरुपक्रम) rates of happening. This is absolutely essential for forming an objective which is an important aspect of DHARNA formation.
• SUBJECT OF DHARNA FORMATION – After choosing the subject of study it has got to be related to the three dimensions of the concept of PARINAM as given in sutra III-16 so that the exactness is further defined. One must be sure in the beginning only that the properties (DHARM), symptoms (LAKSHAN) and state of existence (AWASTHA) of each sequence under study have got to be found out. So DHARNA in the present sutra (as per first part of the sutra) is to study the properties, symptoms and the states of existence of the SPEED IN THE PROCESS OF ANY HAPPENING OR ACTION AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING IT. The method of forming this DHARNA is a highly technical process involving CHITT that I shall be discussing under UNIQUE CONCEPTS OF YOG after finishing with the bluffs spread by YOGA about the third chapter of Patanjali Yog Shastra. Presently it is suffice to understand that no DHARNA can be based on selfish considerations.
• SUBJECT OF DHYAN – Complete unwavering and never distractible attention to stick to the DHARNA formed above as mentioned in sutra III-2
• SUBJECT OF SAMADHI – Various steps taken to achieve the DHARNA formed above (sutra III-3)
• SUBJECT OF SANYAM – The subjects mentioned under DHARNA, DHYAN and SAMADHI above ( as per second part of the sutra and sutra (III-4)
• SUBJECT OF PRAGYA ALOK – Such a pursuit will lead to the emergence of that insight into the relative principles of sequence of the speeds of happening and the affecting factors (as per sutra III-5) that will lead to the understanding of physical expanse related to longevity and antiquity of any happening, action or an object (as per third part of the sutra and sutra III-6).
• SUBJECT OF VINIYOG – and will be of help in further exploration of related discoveries and inventions (as per sutras III-7 and III-8)
By taking into consideration the above guidelines given by Patanjali in various contextual sutras and by filling appropriately the three parts of the sutra into the blanks of the table given in the THIRD BLUFF YOGA (continued -4), the same sutra gives the entirely logical and practical approach to the subject if the contexts of SANYAM (संयम) and PARINAM (परिणाम) as explained by Patanjali are duly kept in mind. The translation will read as under:
STANDARD EXPLANATION AS PATANJALI MEANT
If you have made up your mind (DHARNA धारणा) to choose your subject of study as finding out the properties (DHARM धर्म), the symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and the states of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था), the three dimensions of PARINAM (परिणाम), about two types of fast and slow speeds of happening or any two types of opposite indicators affecting the speed, a subject of natural elements (BHOOT भूत covered under BRAHM GYAN ब्रह्मज्ञान)
And you are determined to pay never distractible attention (DHYAN ध्यान) in order to stick to this decision under any circumstances and you are confident of working wholeheartedly (SAMADHI समाधि) come what may for execution of this decision; you are likely to get that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) into the underlying principles of sequence (KRAM क्रम) about RATE OF DECAY which will be of help to you
In understanding the LIFE EXPECTECY or the ANTIQUITY of the things you are studying and you should be able to make use or implement (VINIYOG विनियोग) this understanding in any field of further exploration like anthropology, archaeology, meteorology, medicine, hygiene, mental and physical fitness etc, methods of finding out age and antiquity and inventions responsible for maintenance, preservation and increased production. You can also know the secrets of longevity if any and associated births of unimaginable disciplines at present by just comparing the speeds of inhaling, exhaling and retention of breath. .
BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATED – Any branch studying longevity / fatigue and factors responsible for it.
RECIPROCAL STATEMENT OF THIS SUTRA – If life expectancy and the antiquity of things are taken as the SUBJECTS of study then determining factors must be fast and slow speeds in a process and any opposite indicators like high and low parameters of temperature, pressure etc.
ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARISON AND CONCLUSIONS
By juxtaposing the two interpretations the simple, interesting and irrefutable conclusions emerge that are applicable to all the sutras as a rule. It is quite possible that sage NARAD and sage SHAUNAK came to the same logical conclusions after mastering the entire knowledge given in VEDAS and becoming experts in scientific knowledge only given therein and not finding any spiritual knowledge anywhere. How could they find spiritualism in Vedas where it didn’t exist? (Refer FIRST BLUFF – SPIRITUALISM for details). Same way one cannot find any spiritualistic thought in Patanjali Yog Sutras which are ultimately vedic scientific thoughts in precis or a formula form only. The conclusions are as under:
• SPIRITUALISTIC INSISTENCE - In spite of all the precautions taken by Patanjali the spiritualistic yoga translations not only gave birth to several bluffs regarding the supernatural powers possessed by a yogi but have actively contributed in spreading these to the extent that it becomes a subject of imagination only to think on the lines of considering Patanjali Yogsutras as practical and scientific in essence. I think there are two main factors responsible for spreading such ignorance. One is the literal translation and the other is the spiritualistic insistence. In literal translation the sutra is just made a complete grammatical sentence without even bothering whether it conveys any sense or not in the translated language. In spiritualistic insistence the explanations given do not permit any other meaning of a word except a spiritual coinage and over a period of time the coinages have multiplied to benumbing alternatives. The literal (शब्दार्थ), contextual (संदर्भार्थ), abstract (भावार्थ) and even etymological (अन्वयार्थ) meanings of the words are twisted to serve the ends of some spiritualistic coinage only but never anything near to scientific either in modern sense being incomplete or Vedic sense being not given even a chance to be explored.
• MENTION OF A HAPPENING – in each sutra there is a mention of some happening or action going on in nature which we can call as subject of enquiry. This mention is always in the third part of any so misinterpreted ‘boon sutra’. In this sutra the secrets of longevity, preservation and antiquity are mentioned by using the word APRANT (अपरांत) in the third part of Sutra. In VEDAS also each hymn indicates a subject of enquiry.
• EXHORTATION FOR EXPERIMENTATION – mentioning alone is not enough. Why and how of this faculty are further indicated that can have only one intention of exhortation for experimentation denoted by the word SANYAMAT (संयमात). The specific areas where experimentation can be done are mentioned in the first part of the sutra. The words used are fast speed (सोप क्रम), slow speed (निरुपक्रम) and and two opposite operatives (अरिष्ट) responsible for speed. All these areas have to be studied and experimented upon (संयमात – a highly technical and yogic method) to arrive at the phenomenon of longevity.The LONGEVITY now does not remain a limited aspiration of long life or ability to know the span of life only. The experimentation now starts encompassig the known and unknown limitless fields of knowledge. Let me illustrate it further by comparing it with say Newton’s formula F ═ ma, indicating an aspect of motion How did Newton arrive at this formula? How did he improve upon the principle of dynamics discovered by Aristotle? The answers to these questions cannot be apparent in this formula. But curiosity for experimentation on finding out some relationship between force and mass with rate of change of velocity is obvious to anyone. The same formula, if translated in Patanjali like sutras will read something as under and it not only maintains the curiosity intact like Newton but further adds exhortation for experimentation by using a technical word SANYAMAT.
BAL PADARTH ANNMAIYAKOSH SOPKRAMAM CHA NIRUPKRAMAM SANYAMAT GATIGYANAM
बल (FORCE –first part of the sutra) पदार्थ अन्नमय कोष (MASS –first part) सोपक्रमं च निरूपक्रमं (ACCELRATION - first part ) संयमात (second part of the sutra) गतिज्ञानं (KNOWLEDGE OF DYNAMICS) .
• THE VISIBLE DIFFERENCES – The visible differences between the modern formulae and Patanjali sutras are:
a) In Patanjali sutras there is a specific exhortation for experimentation by following a well explained methodology of SANYAM only. In modern formulae the exhortation for experimentation is limited to a bye-product of curiosity and no specific methodology is advocated. It rather revolves round the maxim of ends justifying the means if the argument is stretched further logically.
b) In order to highlight the importance of methodology of approaching any knowledge the sutras of Patanjali have embedded the word SANYAM in second part of the structure of each sutra as if to remind any seeker of knowledge to never lose sight of this vital essence. Not only the means and the ends are thus important in VEDIC approach but the application of knowledge also acquires an equal importance. This is what the ultimate aim of knowledge has got to be.
c) Modern scientific formulae generally indicate the discoveries of scientific principles operating in nature which may or may not be true or verifiable at the time of discovery. Patanjali sutras based on Vedic hymns indicate the presence of such scientific principles with choice words denoting the fields of exploration and a specific exhortation to discover them through a well explained yogic process only. A pertinent question that arises here is that if the authors of Vedas knew the existence of such principles why Patanjali could not elucidate these as such like modern formulae. There must be strong reasons for such an emphasis and lack of elucidation if it is really there. Vedas have not claimed anywhere as compendium of any specific modern subject like physics or chemistry. These are the books more on the lines of Directive Principles for finding out about innumerable subjects. Patanjali is just doing the same as he is interpreting Vedas only. He is not writing the formulae of physics or chemistry. This job is left to the writers of UPVEDAS and the findings there are as progressive or deficient and subject to verification as the findings of Aristotle, Newton or Einstein.
d) Modern scientific formulae employ specific terms though routine but duly accepted as understood standards by the scientific community all over to establish a definite relationship among them as arrived till date. In these formulae there is no mention of general area of observation for which the specific terms have been used. But in Patanjali sutras there has to be a mention of the general area of some natural happening in the third part of the sutra, the cause for which has got to be found out through a well defined method of SANYAM mentioned in the second part of the sutra by deliberating upon the specific and routine terms mentioned in the first part of the sutra.
• INDICATION OF A SEQUENCE – Each Sutra of Patanjali in third chapter where a boon has been claimed indicates a sequence of happenings in first part of its structure. In this sutra the words pointing towards the sequence of speed are SOP KRAM (सोप क्रम), NIRUP KRAM (निरुपक्रम) and the sequence of factors affecting the speed is denoted by the word ARISHT (अरिष्ट). Unless this sequence is found out the conclusions about the expanse (अपरांत) of life cannot be drawn.
• USE OF SIMPLE AND ROUTINE WORDS – Patanjali has used simple and routine words of Sanskrit, most probably the lingua franca of his age and not the Vedic Sanskrit in first part of the structure of the sutra to convey the understanding of the scientific concept of enquiry given in the third part of the sutra. These terms have been interpreted arbitrarily by various spiritualistic interpretations in varied and contradictory forms quite unlike the standardized acceptance of the specific terms as in modern formulae mentioned in d) above.
• ONLY REASON OF BACKWARDNESS – The examples of inventions and discoveries given above from the modern awareness, therefore, are not to substantiate the arrogant claims of a spiritualist of either already possessing the knowledge or not pursuing it being inferior knowledge; but to emphasize the fact that the only reason of backwardness anywhere in any society is resistance and refusal to any awareness due to any reason and in Indian context the already discovered path to awareness in Vedas and specifically elucidated by Patanjali in his YOGSUTRAS has been intentionally blocked by advancing spurious translations in the name of so circulated advanced knowledge of spiritualism but in reality a fake par excellence. In fact no spiritualistic dogma has ever, anywhere contributed in any civilization towards any discovery or invention. Rather the history is replete with the incidents where spiritualism has put spokes deliberately in the wheels of science and progress. To propagate now or ever by any spiritualist that there is something like scientific spiritualism, amounts to throwing dust in the eyes to blur the vision. Let me clarify it further. The modern scientific terminology could have been Vedic also, had there been an effort to interpret Vedic knowledge scientifically and not spiritually. Vedas are replete with innumerable technical terms and no effort has ever been made to find out their exact scientific purport. Even if the job is started in right earnestness now only and the meanings of the Vedic terms are standardized, it will not only save the spiritualist of resorting to the mockery of trying to prove a Vedic concept scientific in view of advancing scientific developments; but also help overcoming the helplessness of quoting a modern technical term which is inadequate to explain a Vedic concept. It will further add to the human pool of knowledge that vital information which aims at prosperity and benefit for all. I am of the firm opinion that no spiritualist can ever even dare think on these lines because spiritualism is the only reason of our backwardness and pitiable state in many fields.