SUTRA (III-21) – MIRACLES OF YOG
VERSUS THE BLUFFS OF YOGA
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
In spite of all the precautions taken by Patanjali the spiritualistic yoga translations not only gave birth to several bluffs regarding the supernatural powers possessed by a yogi but have actively contributed in spreading these to the extent that it becomes a subject of imagination only to think on the lines of considering Patanjali Yogsutras as practical and scientific in essence. I think there are two main factors responsible for spreading such ignorance. One is the literal translation and the other is the spiritualistic insistence. Though an effort has been made to explain the purport of this sutra as near to as what Patanjali meant by comparing it with the standard spiritualistic translation having obvious infirmities at a glance yet it is suggested that it is read along with INTRODUCTION TO THE BLUFFS OF SUPERNATURAL POWERS OF YOGA AND YOGI as given in THIRD BLUFF YOGA (Continued - 4) for arriving at your own conclusions and calling the bluff permanently.
BLUFF OF BECOMING INVISIBLE – SUTRA (III-21)
(III-21) KAYA RUP (first part) SANYAMAT (second part) TAD GRAHYA SHAKTI STAMBHE (first part) CHAKSHU PRAKASHA SAMPRAYOGE (first part) ANTARDHANAM (third part)
(III-21) कायरूप (पहला भाग) संयमात (दूसरा भाग) तद्ग्राह्य शक्ति स्तम्भे (पहला भाग) चक्षु प्रकाशा (पहला भाग) सम्प्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम (तीसरा भाग)
As usual the STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC translation is as under which is arrived at by filling in the blanks of the outline
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC TRANSLATION
By MEDITATING / CONCENTRATING on his body a yogi blocks its receiving capacity and does not permit others eyes’ piercing capacity and is thus blessed with the power of becoming invisible.
BLUFF PROPAGATED – A yogi is capable of becoming invisible
INFIRMITIES OF SPIRITUALISIC TRANSLATION
The spiritualistic translation suffers from the following infirmities:
Routine words GRAHYA, SHAKTI and STAMBHE (ग्राह्य, शक्ति स्तम्भे) that might be having scientific purport of reflection and indices of refraction of different objects have been made to be understood as some imaginary, unidirectional spiritualistic power possessed by a yogi who can stall the natural phenomenon. No natural phenomenon has ever been or can ever be stalled.
· The spiritualistic translation being word to word and only made grammatically complete sentence, gives the impression of a boon alright that is never realizable being impractical and illogical.
· The word SANYAM संयम has three parts and contexts indicating a complete process. All three contexts of SANYAM संयम have been ignored
· The first context TRAYAMEKTRA त्रयमेकत्र of the word SANYAM संयम as given by Patanjali in sutra III-4 is completely ignored and it has been substituted by a spurious translation MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION
· MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION remains an idle, effortless technique as advised by the system of YOGA योगा one believes in as discussed earlier and nowhere recommended by Patanjali.
· The second context as given in Sutra III-5 that SANYAM संयम leads to that INSIGHT (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) of getting aware of some sequence (KRAM क्रम); is completely skipped.
· It jumps straight from some imaginary, effortless MEDITATION / CONCENTRATION on first part of the sutra to the achievements mentioned in third part of the sutra. It is conveniently forgotten that it is the INSIGHT (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) of sequence (KRAM क्रम) only that may further lead to the understanding of the third part of any sutra.
· No effort has been made in any translation to take into consideration the third context as given by Patanjali in sutra III-6 as the spiritualists are allergic to any other knowledge. The third context mentions that this understanding of the third part of any sutra can now be applied for further achievements and results to be discovered and invented in any field of either SABIJ (सबीज) or NIRBIJ (निर्बीज) knowledge respectively (sutra III-7 and sutra III-8).
· Lastly, this translation does not take into consideration the methodology given by Patanjali in sutra III-16 for understanding any boon sutra. The first part of any boon sutra has got to be related to TRYA PARINAM (त्रय परिणाम) i.e. the first part of sutra (III-16). Otherwise a specific objective (DHARNA धारणा) that is the essential part of SANYAM संयम cannot be formed
MIRACLE AS MEANT BY PATANJALI
In Patanjali’s approach there is no room for translation. It has got to be detailed explanation only as the sutras are in pithy form. The explanation must be in the context as Patanjali suggests and not arbitrary as followed by various contradictory versions of spiritualized YOGA. Besides the contextual words SANYAM and PARINAM as mentioned in sutras III-1 to III-15 and are common to all the so called ‘boon sutras’, Patanjali frequently refers to those contextual words that he has either already defined or in the process of explaining; like CHITT, SATTVA, PURUSH, VRITTI, VIVEK and KAIVALYA etc. The same sutra gives the entirely logical and practical approach to the subject if the contexts of SANYAM and PARINAM as explained by Patanjali are duly kept in mind and the infirmities mentioned above are not permitted to creep in. The explanation should be based on the following standards:
STANDARDS SET BY PATANJALI FOR EXPLANATION
The contexts, without which the explanation of this sutra as Patanjali meant cannot be arrived at, are as under:
· THE GENERAL AREAS OF VEDIC KNOWLEDGE from which the subject of study has been chosen – STUDY OF SELF i.e. .(ATM GYAN आत्म ज्ञान) under which the properties of physical body with specific reference to the eyes and secondly, the STUDY OF ELEMENTS i.e. (BRAHM GYAN) under which the properties of LIGHT are to be studied. (as per sutra III-13)
· CHOICE OF A SUBJECT FOR STUDY – THE PROCESS OF FORMING AN IMAGE. Patanjali has clearly mentioned the study of three areas in the first part of this sutra which must be a prerequisite to understand the process. These are physical body (KAYARUP कायरूप), the eyes (CHAKSHU चक्षु) and the light (PRAKASH प्रकाश).This is absolutely essential for forming an objective which is an important aspect of DHARNA formation.
· SUBJECT OF DHARNA FORMATION – After choosing the subject of study it has got to be related to the three dimensions of the concept of PARINAM as given in sutra III-16 so that the exactness is further defined. One must be sure in the beginning only that the properties (DHARM), symptoms (LAKSHAN) and state of existence (AWASTHA) of each sequence under study have got to be found out. So DHARNA in the present sutra (as per first part of the sutra) is to find out the properties, symptoms and the states of existence of physical body, eyes and the light that are responsible for the PROCESS OF FORMING AN IMAGE. The method of forming this DHARNA is a highly technical process involving CHITT that I shall be discussing under UNIQUE CONCEPTS OF YOG after finishing with the bluffs spread by YOGA about the third chapter of Patanjali Yog Shastra. Presently it is suffice to understand that no DHARNA can be based on selfish considerations.
· SUBJECT OF DHYAN – Complete unwavering and never distractible attention to stick to the DHARNA formed above as mentioned in sutra III-2
· SUBJECT OF SAMADHI – Various steps taken to achieve the DHARNA formed above (sutra III-3)
· SUBJECT OF SANYAM – The subjects mentioned under DHARNA, DHYAN and SAMADHI above ( as per second part of the sutra and sutra III-4)
· SUBJECT OF PRAGYA ALOK – Emergence of that insight into the relative principles of sequence in physical body, eyes and light (as per sutra III-5)
· SUBJECT OF VINIYOG – That will lead to the understanding of any thing becoming invisible (as per third part of the sutra and sutra III-6) and will be of help in further exploration of related discoveries and inventions (as per sutras III-7 and III-8)
By taking into consideration the above guidelines given by Patanjali in various contextual sutras and by filling appropriately the three parts of the sutra into the blanks of the table given in the THIRD BLUFF YOGA (continued -4), the standard explanation will read something as under
STANDARD TRANSLATION AS PATANJALI MEANT
“If you have made up your mind (DHARNA धारणा) to choose your subject of study as finding out the properties (DHARM धर्म), the symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and the states of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था), the three dimensions of PARINAM (परिणाम), about the properties of human eye and the object to be seen, a subject of senses (INDRIYAN इन्द्रियां) covered under ATM GYAN (आत्मज्ञान) and light (NATURAL ELEMENT भूत) covered under BRAHMGYAN (ब्रह्मज्ञान)
And you are determined to pay never distractible attention (DHYAN ध्यान) in order to stick to this decision under any circumstances and you are confident of working wholeheartedly (SAMADHI समाधि) come what may for execution of this decision; you are likely to get that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) into the underlying principles of sequence (KRAM क्रम) about visibility which will be of help to you
In understanding the reasons of things you are studying becoming invisible and you should be able to make use or implement (VINIYOG विनियोग) this understanding in any field of further exploration like military science, optics, magic, psychology and inventions like various kinds of lenses, film projectors, radar etc”.
BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATED – PROPERTIES OF LIGHT
RECIPROCAL STATEMENT OF THIS SUTRA – If visibility becomes the SUBJECT of study then properties of human eye, the object to be seen and the light becomes the OBJECTIVES to be found out.
ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARISON AND CONCLUSIONS
By juxtaposing the two interpretations the simple, interesting and irrefutable conclusions emerge that are applicable to all the sutras as a rule. It is quite possible that sage NARAD came to the same logical conclusions after mastering the entire knowledge given in VEDAS and becoming only an expert in scientific knowledge (MANTRAVIT मंत्रवित) therein and not finding any spiritual knowledge (NATMVIT नात्मवित) anywhere when we find him beseeching his teacher SANATKUMAR to impart him the knowledge of spiritualism, “सोअहम् भगवो मन्त्रविदेवास्मि नात्मवित”- CHHANDOGYA UPANISHAD (7-1). Similar is the strain of sage SHAUNAK after mastering all the VEDAS in front of his teacher ANGIRAS when he finds only scintific knowledge (APRA VIDYA अपरा विद्या) and no spiritual knowledge (PARA VIDYA परा विद्या) in VEDAS – refer MUNDAK UPANISHAD (1.1.3). How could they find spiritualism in Vedas where it didn’t exist? (Refer FIRST BLUFF – SPIRITUALISM for details). Same way one cannot find any spieitualistic thought in Patanjali Yog Sutras which are ultimately vedic scientific thoughts in precis or a formula form only. The conclusions are as under:
· MENTION OF A HAPPENING – in each sutra there is a mention of some happening or action going on in nature which we can call as subject of enquiry. In this sutra the faculty of vision is mentioned by using a simple word ANTARDHANAM (अन्तर्धानं) in the third part of Sutra. In VEDAS also each hymn indicates a subject of enquiry.
· EXHORTATION FOR EXPERIMENTATION – mentioning alone is not enough. Why and how of this faculty are further indicated that can have only one intention of exhortation for experimentation denoted by the word SANYAMAT (संयमात). Vision cannot be restricted to mean a human faculty alone. The specific areas where experimentation can be done are mentioned in the first part of the sutra. The words used are capabilities (ग्राह्य शक्ति), of different shapes of physical bodies (कायरूप), the eye (चक्षु), the light (प्रकाश) and disassociation (असम्प्रयोगे). All these areas have to studied and experimented upon (संयमात – a highly technical and yogic method) to arrive at the phenomenon of vision. The VISION now does not remain a limited ability of seeing only. The experimentation starts encompassing the fieldsof reflection, refraction, reduction, magnification, various kinds of rays and mediums,effect of rays on mediums, effect of mediums on rays, physical structure of eyes of various creatures with possibilities of reasons of relationship with overt overall anatomical features and the endless subjects. Let me illustrate it further by comparing it with say Einstein’s formula indicating an aspect of relativity E = mc2 How did Einstein arrive at this formula? The answer to this question cannot be apparent in this formula. But curiosity for experimentation on finding out some relationship between energy and mass with the speed of light is obvious to anyone. The same formula, if translated in Patanjali like sutras will read something as under and it not only maintains the curiosity intact like Einstein but further adds exhortation for experimentation by using a technical word SANYAMAT:
ऊर्जा (ENERGY) पदार्थ अन्नमय कोष (MASS) प्रकाश गतिर्वर्गा (SQUARE OF THE SPEED OF LIGHT) - (पहला भाग first part of the sutra), संयमात (EXHORTATION FOR EXPERIMENTATION) - (दूसरा भाग second part of the sutra) सापेक्ष ज्ञानं (KNOWLTDGE OF RELATIVITY) - (तीसरा भाग third part of the sutra).
· THE VISIBLE DIFFERENCES – The visible differences between the modern formulae and Patanjali sutras are:
a) In Patanjali sutras there is a specific exhortation for experimentation by following a well explained methodology of SANYAM only. In modern formulae the exhortation for experimentation is limited to a bye-product of curiosity and no specific methodology is advocated. It rather revolves round the maxim of ends justifying the means if the argument is stretched further logically.
b) In order to highlight the importance of methodology of approaching any knowledge the sutras of Patanjali have embedded the word SANYAM in second part of the structure of each sutra as if to remind any seeker of knowledge to never lose sight of this vital essence. Not only the means and the ends are thus important in VEDIC approach but the application of knowledge also acquires an equal importance. This is what the ultimate aim of knowledge has got to be.
· INDICATION OF A SEQUENCE - The above sutra clearly indicates the presence of three factors responsible for visibility. These are the eyes, light and the object to be seen. The properties, symptoms and the states of existence of all these must produce a sequence to make a thing visible.
· USE OF SIMPLE AND ROUTINE WORDS – Patanjali has used simple and routine words of Sanskrit, most probably the lingua franca of his age and not the Vedic Sanskrit in first part of the structure of the sutra to convey the understanding of the scientific concept of enquiry given in the third part of the sutra. The second part of the sutra is always SANYAM, a technical Vedic word already explained in sutras from III-1 to III-8.
· ONLY REASON OF BACKWARDNESS – The examples of inventions and discoveries given above from the modern awareness, therefore, are not to substantiate the arrogant claims of a spiritualist of either already possessing the knowledge or not pursuing it being inferior knowledge; but to emphasize the fact that the only reason of backwardness anywhere in any society is resistance and refusal to any awareness due to any reason and in Indian context the already discovered path to awareness in Vedas and specifically elucidated by Patanjali in his YOGSUTRAS has been intentionally blocked by advancing spurious translations in the name of so circulated advanced knowledge of spiritualism but in reality a fake par excellence. In fact no spiritualistic dogma has ever, anywhere contributed in any civilization towards any discovery or invention. Rather the history is replete with the incidents where spiritualism has put spokes deliberately in the wheels of science and progress. To propagate now or ever by any spiritualist that there is something like scientific spiritualism, amounts to throwing dust in the eyes to blur the vision. Let me clarify it further. The modern scientific terminology could have been Vedic also, had there been an effort to interpret Vedic knowledge scientifically and not spiritually. Vedas are replete with innumerable technical terms and no effort has ever been made to find out their exact scientific purport. Even if the job is started in right earnestness now only and the meanings of the Vedic terms are standardized, it will not only save the spiritualist of resorting to the mockery of trying to prove a Vedic concept scientific in view of advancing scientific developments; but also help overcoming the helplessness of quoting a modern technical term which is inadequate to explain a Vedic concept. It will further add to the human pool of knowledge that vital information which aims at prosperity and benefit for all. I am of the firm opinion that no spiritualist can ever even dare think on these lines because spiritualism is the only reason of our backwardness and pitiable state in many fields.