EXECUTION STAGE – STAGE OF SANYAM (संयम)
ONLY YOG – (केवल योग) THE ENDLESS
ULTIMATE FOR ALL ‘UltimatES’
EXECUTION STAGE – STAGE OF SANYAM (संयम)
Having finished the Preparation (प्रज्ञा) and Planning (विवेक) stages of yogic methodology we come to the Execution stage. Patanjali calls this as stage of SANYAM (संयम) – a highly technical concept that is defined as combination of three terms that are again highly technical concepts.
(SUTRA III-4) त्रयमेकत्र संयम
(SUTRA III-4) – TRAYAMEKATRA SANYAM
The three concepts are DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN (ध्यान) and SAMADHI (समाधि) that have been defined in preceding SUTRAS III-1 to III-3 respectively. All these concepts are partially understood or are not at all understood through translating them into English or any other language for the simple reason that the concepts don’t exist in any other language. A similar kind of approach has been insisted in Indian languages also by the spiritualistic explanations. The irony is that such explanations have been resorted to in spite of clear definitions given by Patanjali. Thus, in all languages SANYAM does not mean a combination of three concepts as given by Patanjali in the above SUTRA but becomes arbitrarily a kind of “CONCENTRATION” in English language and something on the lines of control (NIYANTRAN नियंत्रण) by a celibate in Indian languages. DHARNA becomes simple objective, DHYAN becomes meditation and SAMADHI becomes a state of trance and such explanations are nowhere near the definitions given by the author. These anomalies are discussed later under respective heads
DETERMINATION OF THE AREA OF ENGAGEMENT
Since the first step of EXECUTION is DHARNA that involves making a choice of a subject of engagement, the two broad areas discussed in Vedas are ATM GYAN (आत्म ज्ञान) that is knowing about oneself and BRAHM GYAN (ब्रह्म ज्ञान) that is knowing about around self, the environment, the universe etc. Though the authors of Vedas concluded that the two areas of knowledge are interdependent as the same laws are ultimately applicable to both (YATHA PINDE TATHA BRAHMANDE यथा पिण्डे तथा ब्रह्मांडे) yet for convenience they continued discussing various topics of research under these two broad areas only. Inquiry into these two areas can lead to either:
• SABIJ GYAN or (सबीज ज्ञान)
• NIRBIJ GYAN (निर्बीज ज्ञान)
Again the choice has got to be made by an individual researcher. For this he must know these.
WHAT IS SABIJ GYAN?
It is that area of engagement where the intention is to find out the inherent principles in any happening. Any such principle has a vast potential of innumerable applications in various branches of knowledge and leads to fructification of discoveries of innumerable principles further leading to a chain of principles. That’s why it has been given the name SABIJ GYAN – that is knowledge with the potential of a seed. For example, under intended BRAHM GYAN if I happen to find out the principle of dynamics, it is bound to lead to the discoveries of the principles of dynamics of and in air, water, earth, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanoes, planets and innumerable so on and so forth. The same principle of dynamics under intended ATM GYAN will lead to the discoveries of the principles of dynamics of blood in arteries, veins, nerves, capillaries and mechanics of various body systems like digestive, respiratory etc.
WHAT IS NIRBIJ GYAN?
It is the choice of that area of engagement where the intention is to invent some device based on the principle already discovered under SABIJ GYAN. It is NIRBIJ – without the fructification potential of a seed; because any invention is final in itself and over a period of time it becomes part of history. Based on the same discovered principle of SABIJ GYAN, innumerable other inventions become the subjects of pursuit. For example, under intended BRAHM GYAN and the same found out principle of DYNAMICS in SABIJ GYAN, innumerable NIRBIJ inventions like bow arrows, carts, bullets, automobiles, ships, aircrafts, rockets, missiles, space-ships etc. have been done and will continue to be invented. Similarly, under the intended ATM GYAN and the same found out principle of DYNAMICS in SABIJ GYAN, innumerable NIRBIJ inventions like stethoscope, surgical instruments, angioplasty machines etc. have been done.
METHODS OF FINDING OUT SABIJ / NIRBIJ
There are only two methods of acquiring the above types of knowledge
• SAVITARK (सवितर्क) – with perverted logic.
• NIRVITARK (निर्वितर्क) – with non-perverted logic.
WHAT IS SAVITARK (सवितर्क)?
According to Patanjali this method of finding out anything is based on perverted logic (VITARK वितर्क). It is perverted because it is based on selfish considerations arising out of the following THOUGHTS that have already been explained elsewhere:
• KLESH (क्लेश) – a kind of limited intelligence based on ignorance (AVIDYA अविद्या), attachment (RAG राग), repulsion (DWESH द्वेष), egotism (ASMITA अस्मिता) and blind clinging (ABHINIVESH अभिनिवेश)
• KARM (कर्म) – involvement in action / inaction to get reward or to avoid punishment
• VIPAK (विपाक) – involvement or avoidance as the action is holy or unholy
• ASHAY (आशय) – action born out of desire
The means employed are of ‘hook and crook’ only. Such logic is always based on thought but not on wisdom that Patanjali calls PRAGYA (प्रज्ञा) / VIVEK (विवेक) Hence it is SAVICHAR (सविचार). For Patanjali it is non-yogic method and is driven by MANOVRITTI stage that is MAN (मन) or SATTVA (सत्त्व) stage of CHITTVRITTI (चित्तवृत्ति). Such a method is against the very Vedic ethos of DHARM (धर्म) and the consequent embedded culture of sticking consciously, sub-consciously or even unconsciously to the fair means than to the results running into Indian blood stream in spite of the incalculable material and physical harms. (For details of DHARM refer SECOND BLUFF- RELIGION).
WHAT IS NIRVITARK (निर्वितर्क)?
Such logic is never based on the thoughts of KLESH (क्लेश), KARM (कर्म), VIPAK (विपाक) and ASHAY (आशय). Hence it is NIRVICHAR (निर्विचार) – meaning literally ‘not based on the thoughts’ of KLESH etc. For Patanjali it is the only yogic method as it is driven by PURUSH (पुरुष) stage of CHITTVRITTI (चित्तवृत्ति)
A WORD ABOUT SABIJ, NIRBIJ, SAVICHAR, NIRVICHAR, SAVITARK AND NIRVITARK
All the above terms have been explained differently at spiritualistic plane. The explanations there are contradictory also due to various brands of spiritualism claiming perfection of its variety only. Since the explanations are basically anti scientific inquiry, these tend to get enmeshed into verbosity having no substance. So much so that ideal perfection is imagined to be achieved in that stage, which glorifies thoughtlessness (NIRVICHAR (निर्विचार), that is full of idleness and shuns any kind of effort. It is nothing but hypocrisy if NIRVICHAR is translated this way. Such a state is possible only in either a dead body or a drugged body. And that is what actually happened. Many sects actively using drugs for perfection sprang up and justified their approach as even their created gods and the highest GOD Shiva relished such indulgence. All these words were also converted into kinds of SAMADHI – a cherished goal of going into trance and having the unverifiable pleasure of union of soul and GOD but actually a comatose where lethargy and dullness reign supreme.