Saturday, April 9, 2011




The oft mentioned five natural elements of Vedas are: EARTH, WATER, AIR, FIRE and SPACE. All these have innumerable VRITTIS called as MAHAVIDEHA (महाविदेहा) studied under five groups. Each group has innumerable VRITTIS. The group name appears to have been chosen to suggest a particular characteristic of the VRITTIS coming under that group as per rules of grammar wherein a word can convey four types of meanings i.e. a group meaning (JATI जाति), a property meaning (GUN गुण), a functional meaning (KRIYA क्रिया) and a material meaning (DRAVYA द्रव्य).The permutation and combination of these VRITTIS (वृत्ति) of natural elements in five groups will work out to astronomical figures. The manifestation will be as per LAW OF APARINAMI mentioned above. In a way these are the directive principles that help in understanding VRITTIS. The five common groups under which any VRITTI under any element (तत्त्व) must be studied are as under:
• Structure and appearance - SWARUP (स्वरूप)
• Visibly identifiable components – STHUL (स्थूल)
• Invisible components – SUKSHM (सूक्ष्म)
• Function – ANVAYA (अन्वय)
• Purpose – ARTHVATTVA (अर्थवत्त्व)

Explanations of these concepts are as under:

• (SWARUP स्वरूप) – This word is a routine word as it has neither been defined nor explained by Patanjali. But the unnecessary spiritualistic explanations have made it appear so pedagogic that they achieve confusion only successfully if that is the aim. I, therefore, take the routine meaning only that the VRITTIS (वृत्ति) have definite structure and appearance. The word SWARUP (स्वरूप) now cannot be restricted to mean physical structure alone. It must convey other forms of structure like chemical, atomical, molecular, genetical, and biological or any other kind of logical structure the human mind can trace tomorrow. For such derivations there are ample proofs in Vedas and Patanjali YOG SHASTRA. This structure (SWARUP स्वरूप) can have the properties (DHARM धर्म) and symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) like being temporary, transient or long lasting depending upon stage (AWASTHA अवस्था) as per LAW OF APARINAMI (अपरिणामी) explained earlier. The directive principle will always remain that all VRITTIS (वृत्ति) have a definite SWARUP (स्वरूप) and the human efforts should be to find out the SWARUP (स्वरूप) of each VRITTI (वृत्ति) at any stage under study. The word SWARUP (स्वरूप) is thus a holistic approach to all possible known and unknown kinds of structure. If we translate this directive principle into a simple and easy to understand statement it points towards a great scientific truth that all basic VRITTIS of nature like earth, water, fire, sky and air that we have chosen to begin our study; must have some structure in any of the innumerable stages (AWASTHA अवस्था) of their existence. The Vedic exhortation is simply to keep on finding out the structure of these stages relentlessly because you have started rightly by accepting the basic directive principle that ‘nothing can exist without structure’. All scientific statements are thus simple and easy to understand. But spiritualistic explanations of the word SWARUP will try to impose the meanings as that “form (SWARUP) of some imaginary soul (ATMA आत्मा) which is pure, pristine crystalline and cosmic in its original structure--- blab blab “. Patanjali explains this human behavior as “verbose and lacking in substance”
• (STHUL स्थूल) – All VRITTIS (वृत्ति) can come to acquire a definite STHUL part. The normal meaning of the word STHUL has again been lost in spiritualistic explanations and so the very scientific concept it intended to convey. It is a routine word that has been made to sound technical by pedantic explanations of spiritualism. If we just take the simple dictionary meaning to begin with it means that the constituents of its structure with their properties must have any of these parts i.e. physical, concrete, gross, solid and visible, with form, discernible part etcetera. I feel that it is quite logical to accept that all VRITTIS can come to acquire a STHUL (स्थूल) stage of sequential existence (AWASTHA अवस्था) as per LAW OF APARINAMI (अपरिणामी) and this stage is clearly visible and has got symptoms that are physically recognizable.
• (SUKSHM सूक्ष्म) – All VRITTIS (वृत्ति) can have a definite SUKSHM (सूक्ष्म) part. It means that the constituents of its structure with their properties must have any of these parts i.e. seemingly abstract, minute, invisible, formless, non-discernible part etc. Like STHUL the meanings and intended scientific purport of this word also have been lost in spiritualistic explanations. It is again a routine word given unnecessary pedantic color. I feel that it is quite logical to accept that all VRITTIS can come to acquire a non-discernible (SUKSHM सूक्ष्म) stage of sequential existence (AWASTHA अवस्था) as per LAW OF APARINAMI (अपरिणामी) and this stage has got symptoms and properties that are not physically recognizable. In other words the symptoms and properties can be other than physical. Today, for example we know from chemistry that these can be chemical, from biology these can be species specific, from nuclear sciences these can be atomical / molecular, from medical sciences these can be pathological, neurological and so on and so forth.
• (ANVAYA अन्वय) – All VRITTIS (वृत्ति) have definite functions (ANVYA अन्वय) to perform that are born under set conditions of environment. These functions are the results of the rules of PRESENCE of VRITTIS discussed later on under PREPARATION stage only. The thumb rule is that for different functions the different set numerical strength of various VRITTIS has got to be present in certain proportion of dominant (उदार), mild (तनु), scattered (विच्छिन्न) and dormant (प्रसुप्त) only as per LAW OF APARINAMI discussed already. These four forms of proportion only decide the function. The spiritualists have explained the word ANVAYA as logical etymological connection among three types of properties (TRIGUN त्रिगुण) namely (SATसत), (RAJ रज) and (TAM तम) aspects of SUKSHM (सूक्ष्म) and STHUL (स्थूल) constituents of an element. The concept of three types of properties (TRIGUN त्रिगुण) has been borrowed by the spiritualistic explanations from the SANKHYA (सांख्य) philosophy of sage KAPIL and applied on Patanjali philosophy of YOG completely forgetting that Patanjali has given his own explanation through the rules of PRESENCE of VRITTIS that determine the functional property of a VRITTI. In a way Patanjali is searching the reasons of a particular function of a VRITTI and KAPIL is exploring the types of functions VRITTIS can perform. Thus Patanjali is talking about a stage coming earlier and KAPIL is analyzing the next stage. As per Patanjali VRITTIS’ functions are determined by the numerical strength and KAPIL groups theses functions to be studied under three heads (JATI जाति) of SAT (सत), RAJ (रज) and TAM (तम). However, the point to be noted is that neither doubts the basic directive principle of Vedas that VRITTIS have a definite function (ANVAYA अन्वय) to perform. Both of them are saying the same thing. And if we consider the properties SAT (सत), RAJ (रज) and TAM (तम) groups of sage KAPIL as playing the roles of PRO, NEUTRAL / MATERIAL and ANTI in any function that is exactly what most probably KAPIL meant; imagine the doors of discoveries it would have opened. But he too like Patanjali was subjected to spiritualistic explanations only and the exact scientific meanings of SATVIK (सात्विक), RAJSIK (राजसिक) and TAMSIK (तामसिक) properties (गुण) were thus lost in the labyrinths of those explanations that lay stress on good and evil – a division that is completely an anti-thesis of Patanjali concept of knowledge and is bracketed with ignorance called AVIDYA (अविद्या)
• (ARTHVATTVA अर्थवत्त्व) – All VRITTIS (वृत्ति) have to function to achieve a definite purpose (ARTHVATTVA अर्थवत्त्व) and the purpose is always some aspect of CREATION. The constituents must create something that is generally mistaken as NEW as explained earlier. The concept indicated by this directive principle is so significant that on one hand it demolishes our most cherished and feared concepts of the religion like the DAY OF JUDGMENT, PRALAYA (प्रलय), QUAYAMAT (क़यामत) etc and on the other a new angle of looking at the things where destruction, waste, sorrow become the acts of CREATION – a fundamental function of VRITTIS to achieve their definite purpose. Awareness of this basic directive principle only of behavior of VRITTIS can lead to anybody’s guess of how many techniques of not only waste management but techniques of those measures also that make use of those VRITTIS only that create desirable waste. Or, it may give umpteen techniques of preserving and not disturbing if only the directive principle given in SHANTI PATH (शांति पाठ) of Vedic hymn is properly understood and adhered to. The crux of this hymn is not to exploit any element (TATTVA तत्त्व) mentioned therein. Let these remain peaceful by using them for purposes that bring peace, prosperity and happiness for all.
As per Patanjali the knowledge of these VRITTIS (वृत्ति) can unfold the entire secrets of nature. But the spiritualistic explanations of the above terms have given such a twist to the meanings that not only the scientific meanings are lost for ever but an entirely opposite philosophy is being propagated in the name of Patanjali

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