BLUFF OF ATMA
SUTRA (III-34) – MIRACLES OF YOG
VERSUS THE BLUFFS OF YOGA
ALL THE BLUFF – CALL THE BLUFF
Centuries of conditioning has forced us to BELIEVE that we are alive because a non-perishable, transferable phenomenon addressed as SOUL is within our body and still we keep on quoting and BELIEVING in innumerable examples that are still alive but with dead SOULS around us.
BLUFF OF KNOWING EXISTENCE OF SOME ETHEREAL FORM OF BODY WITHIN A BODY – SUTRAS (III-34, 35, 36, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 55)
Patanjali sutra quoted as authority for spreading this bluff is as under:
(III-34) HRIDAYE (first part) CHITT SANVIT (third part)
(III-34) हृदये चित्तसंवित्
In this sutra also word of the second part SANYAM (संयम) is not written and it is understood to be present.
STANDARD SPIRITUALISTIC TRANSLATION
By MEDITATING / CONCENTRATING on heart a yogi is blessed with the knowledge of existence of CHITT चित्त.
BLUFF PROPAGATED – CHITT चित्त is soul (ATMA आत्मा), an ethereal body within a body
Besides the glaring infirmities regarding the absence of the contexts of SANYAM (संयम) and PARINAM that are common to all the spiritualistic translations and already mentioned over and over again this spiritualistic translation begets the following added bluffs for these sutras:
• CHITT has been presumed to be an ethereal body to give credence to many imaginary concepts of spiritualism like ATMA (आत्मा), rebirth (PUNARJANM पुनर्जन्म), invisible body (SUKSHM SHARIR सूक्ष्म शरीर) and causal body (KARAN SHARIR कारण शरीर) etc
• The concept of soul is further extended to cover the entire animate and inanimate world by different philosophies of spiritualism that challenge and contradict each other’s version
• No credence has been given to Patanjali’s musings about CHITT in successive sutras where an impassioned appeal to find out more and more about this concept is clearly visible.
MIRACLE AS MEANT BY PATANJALI
The same sutra gives the entirely logical and practical approach to the subject if the contexts of SANYAM (संयम) and PARINAM as explained by Patanjali are duly kept in mind. The explanation will read as under:
STANDARD EXPLANATION AS PATANJALI MEANT
If you have made up your mind (DHARNA धारणा) to choose your subject of study as finding out the properties (DHARM धर्म), the symptoms (LAKSHAN लक्षण) and the states of existence (AWASTHA अवस्था), the three dimensions of PARINAM परिणाम, about HEART a subject of senses (INDRIYAN इन्द्रियां covered under ATM GYAN आत्मज्ञान)
And you are determined to pay never distractible attention (DHYAN ध्यान) in order to stick to this decision under any circumstances and you are confident of working wholeheartedly (SAMADHI समाधि) come what may for execution of this decision; you are likely to get that insight (PRAGYA प्रज्ञा) into the underlying principles of sequence ((KRAM क्रम) about the physical structure of the subject of your study which will be of help to you
In understanding the existence and functions of that part of heart which is called CHITT चित्त and you should be able to make use or implement (VINIYOG विनियोग) this awareness in any field of further exploration and invention like genetics, will power, crisis resolution, administration, governance, business, industry etc”.
BRANCH OF KNOWLEDGE INDICATED – IDENTIFICATION OF GENES
RECIPROCAL STATEMENT OF THIS SUTRA – If CHITT is the SUBJECT of study then HEART becomes the OBJECTIVE.
ANALYSIS OF THE COMPARISON AND CONCLUSIONS
The word CHITT चित्त has been introduced in the very beginning of Patanjali Yog Shastra in sutra I-2 in a compound word CHITTVRATTI चित्तवृत्ति that may give the impression that CHITT चित्त is a kind of VRITTI वृत्ति. Therefore, he immediately gives the warning and makes it explicit in the next two sutras only that CHITT चित्त and VRITTI वृत्ति should never be equated as same. The overt contradiction is resolved the moment we accept Patanjali’s explanation only that these are two entirely different concepts and, therefore, CHITTVRATTI चित्तवृत्ति should be just like millions of other VRITTIS वृत्ति constituting not only the human body but this entire creation. Knowing fully well that CHITT चित्त and VRITTI वृत्ति are such concepts that cannot be put into the limits of a definition he straightaway proceeds to explain VRITTI वृत्ति and we can safely expect he should explain CHITT चित्त also as and when the context demands as per his presentation technique. In this chapter also he reiterates at the basic approach of studying VRITTIS वृत्ति as a group (JATI जाति) in sutra III-18 as he had already suggested a classification of studying VRITTIS वृत्ति in five groups as per sutra I-5. Presently he is just suggesting the method of studying CHITT चित्त as a part of heart in sutra III-34. Since spiritualistic approach has already invented an unverifiable jargon of rebirth (PUNARJANM पुनर्जन्म) in sutra III-18 they are constrained to invent again an unverifiable concept of ATMA आत्मा an ethereal body within physical body in the present sutra that can be passed on to take birth again and again as they know the physical body is perishable. Then what is CHITT चित्त as per Patanjali? Is it a gene or a group of genes? Is it a single master gene or the name is given to a group of millions of genes working under the directions of a master having its own army? Is it a spare gene or a group of spare genes to meet an eventuality? Is it environmentally programmed; then how and why? Or is it a clean slate waiting to take on any role? Is it destructible? If it is a gene how does it differ from other genes studied under VRITTI वृत्ति? Is it mind? Is it psyche functioning at different levels? Does it have various forms? Does it have a physical organ or distinguishable physical organs for various forms? Such are the questions that must have agitated the minds of the authors of Vedas. And whatever the answers discovered by various unknown research scholars over a period of time were thus put in at different places in different Vedas. Without going into the authenticity of history of Vedas at present, it is suffice to observe in the present context of CHITT चित्त and VRITTI वृत्ति that Patanjali also has tried to explain these concepts at different places in his YOGSUTRAS. Nowhere he has tended to be deterministic and self contradicting being arbitrary like spiritualistic explanations that PURV JATI (पूर्व जाति) means PUNARJANM (पुनर्जन्म) and CHITT चित्त means soul (ATMA आत्मा) only. He does not use these imaginary terms at all. By explaining CHITT चित्त and VRITTI वृत्ति over and over again he is just mentioning the various findings by the Vedic scholars and firmly maintains the basic Vedic exhortation of keep on finding out as the knowledge is unlimited (NETI NETI नेति नेति) and it is never destructible (कालेनाऽ नवच्छेदात्) as per sutra I-26. So in this sutra all that he is saying is that if you are interested in finding out the answers to the various above mentioned questions about CHITT (चित्त), it is complete scanning of heart where you should focus your attention. In other words it is a clear indication that CHITT (चित्त) is a physical entity forming a part of heart that must be existing as per found out rules of existence of VRITTIS (वृत्ति) given in sutra II-4 and its genetic code or signature has got to be found out. One of the differentiating factors with other VRITTIS (वृत्ति) might be the place of its existence only that he categorically mentions in this sutra as HEART. Then where do the millions of other VRITTIS (वृत्ति) that he recommends to study in groups reside? Is it brain, the physical organ of mind which he terms as MAN (मन) and as we know today? Are CHITT(चित्त) and MAN (मन) different identities? Was this concept of thinking by BRAIN and not by STOMACH as the Greeks postulated, known to the Vedic scholars? If so, the entire western thought process of which the present day humanity is quite proud of and that derives its sustenance from PLATO only as it reflects incapability of thinking beyond, appears to be quite primitive. On the other hand in Vedas, many dimensions of CHITT have been deliberated upon and the basic premise is that the observer / perceiver say CHITT and the observed / perceived say MAN cannot be the same at the same time as per sutra IV-20. He, therefore proceeds in next and relevant sutras whatever little has been found out about CHITT (चित्त), MAN, SATTVA and PURUSH etc. in Vedas
(III-35) SATTVA PURUSHYORTYANT ASANKIRNYO PRATYAYA VISHESHO BHOGAH PARARTHANYA SVARTH (first part) SANYAMAT (second part) PURUSH GYANAM (third part)
(III-35) सत्त्व पुरुषयोरत्यन्ताऽसंकीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाऽविशेषो भोगः परार्थन्यस्वार्थ संयमात् पुरुष ज्ञानम्
In this sutra he is hinting at the two forms of CHITT (चित्त) i.e. SATTVA (सत्त्व) and PURUSH (पुरुष) and he emphasizes that the difference between the two must be understood. He has already introduced SATTVA (सत्त्व) in sutra II-41 while comparing it with another form of CHITT (चित्त) that he calls as MAN (मन) and qualifies it somewhat in sutra II-53. He emphasizes that being aware of the difference between CHITT (चित्त) and SATTVA (सत्त्व) may lead to that insight which is responsible for the development of specific instinctual and hidden (PRATIBH प्रातिभ) abilities of hearing, feeling, seeing, tasting and smelling in sutra III-36. In some spiritualistic translations PRATIBH (प्रातिभ) has also been added as independent ability possessed by a YOGI. However, if this ability is already possessed by a YOGI as a result of his actions in the previous birth, the question of its development does not arise. Such translations point more to confusion and bias prevalent among spiritualists than academic explanation.
(III-36) TATAH (first part) PRATIBH SHRAVAN VEDNADARSHA SWADVARTTA JAYANTE (third part)
(III-36) ततः प्रातिभश्रावणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्त्ता जायन्ते
He further elaborates that that knowing the difference between SATTVA and PURUSH may lead to that insight which is responsible for acquisition of many areas of knowledge concerning feelings and sentiments in sutra III-49
(III-49) SATTVAPURUSHA ANYATAKHYATIMATRASYA SARVBHAVA ADHISHTATRITVAM SARVGYATRITVAM CHA
(III-49) सत्त्वपुरुषाऽन्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाऽधिष्टातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च
As per sutra III-50, the very awareness of the difference between SATTVA (सत्त्व) and PURUSH (पुरुष) may lead to that insight which is responsible for the destruction of the follies born out of ignorance (KLESH क्लेश) already explained as IMAGINARY SPECIFIC INTELLIGENCE (ISI)
(III-50) TADAIVRAGYADAPI DOSHBIJKSHAYE KAIVALYAM
(III-50) तदैव्रराग्यादपि दोषबीजक्षये कैवल्यम
Further in sutras III-52, III-53 there is again a reminder to not to forget the sequence of every time interval and the changes in properties, symptoms and states of existence as given in sutras III-11 to III-15 if the CHITT (चित्त) has to develop further to achieve absolute discretion that Patanjali calls as VIVEK (विवेक). The other parameters added in sutra III-53 are species / group (JATI जाति) and place (देश)
(III-52) KSHANTATKRAMYO SANYAMADVIVEKAJAM GYANAM
(III-52) क्षण तत्क्रमयोः संयमादिविवेकजम ज्ञानम्
(III-53) JATI LAKSHAN DESHAIR ANYATA NAVACHHEDAT TULYAYOS TATAH PRATIPATTI
(III-53) जातिलक्षणदेशैरन्यतानवच्छेदात्तुल्ययोस्ततः प्रतिपत्तिः
Another potential of CHITT (चित्त) acquiring the insight of that principle which is responsible for all happenings of their own i.e. TARAK (तारक) even without following an apparent sequential order, is alluded to in sutra III-54 and the word CHITT (चित्त) has been replaced with another form CHETI (चेति) to become so capable.
(III-54) TARKAM SARVVISHYAM SARVTHAVISHYAMKRAMAM CHETI VIVEKAJAM GYANAM
(III-54) तारकं सर्व विषयं सर्वथा विषयमक्रमं चेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम्
When such similarity of clarity of understanding (SHUDDHISAMYE शुद्धिसाम्ये) of the difference between PURUSH (पुरुष) and SATTVA (सत्त्व) is arrived at as per sutra III-55 then only emerges KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) that Patanjali terms and equates with the absolute wisdom VIVEK (विवेक) and an achievement of CHITT (चित्त) unequivocally in sutra IV-26. It stands to logic that there are bound to be some differences between any two forms of CHITT (चित्त). Otherwise a blanket term CHITT (चित्त) already existed. The need for coining MAN (मन), SATTVA (सत्त्व) and PURUSH (पुरुष) etc must have arisen as more and more labyrinths of CHITT (चित्त) were gradually discovered. Patanjali YOG SHASTRA, in a way is an excellent treatise on the depths of modern mind beginning with the differences between CHITT (चित्त) and VRITTI (वृत्ति) in sutra I-2 and ending with differences between CHITT (चित्त) and PURUSH (पुरुष) in sutras IV-18 to IV-34.
(III-55) SATTVAPURUSHYO SHUDDHISAMYE KAIVALYAM
(III-55) सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यम
(IV-26)TADAVIVEKNIMNAM KAIVALYAPRAGBHARAM CHITTAM
(IV-26) तदा विवेक निम्नं कैवल्य प्राग्भारं चित्तं
These sutras are, therefore, just extensions of the sutra III-34 giving further information about CHITT (चित्त) and a methodology of developing will. There are further explanations about CHITT (चित्त) in various sutras of the fourth chapter that confirm the approach of Patanjali that various known and unknown parameters of CHITT (चित्त) must be experimented upon and found out. The spiritualistic explanations tend to be deterministic and end all in themselves and do not permit any enquiry. The tragedy is that there is no uniformity among various spiritualistic brands about not only the terms but in purport also. Further, all without exception tend to outwit each other by quoting in support from the advances in modern science and still condemn it as inferior knowledge not worth striving for. In the present discussion they will, for example quote still to be confirmed Freud’s id, ego and superego functioning at unconscious, subconscious and conscious levels and outdated McDougall’s instinct theories but never even give a thought to an attempt that has been made in Vedas or Patanjali Yog Shastra about explaining mind through a term say CHITT (चित्त) and instinct through a term VRITTI (वृत्ति), that may be more comprehensive and convincing than modern theories on mind so far. Here the single track spiritualistic explanation of considering CHITT (चित्त) as soul only comes in their way and thus a blunt refusal to listen to logic of at least making an attempt to find out the different meanings and explanations of the words like CHITT (चित्त), SATTVA (सत्त्व), MAN (मन), PURUSH (पुरुष), VRITTI (वृत्ति), NIRODH (निरोध), SANYAM (संयम), DHARNA (धारणा), DHYAN (ध्यान), SAMADHI (समाधि), VIVEK (विवेक), KAIVALYA (कैवल्य) etc.